Gender difference in the influence of smoking on arterial wall thickness.
Journal - Atherosclerosis (IRELAND )
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that arterial wall thickening, an early atherogenic alteration, might be associated with smoking differently according to gender, considering the cardiovascular protection of female sex hormones. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured ultrasonographically carotid and femoral intima-media thickness (IMT) in 194 men and 330 women without risk factors other than smoking. In men: (i) current smokers had greater carotid and femoral IMT (P<0.01, P<0.001) and former smokers had greater femoral IMT (P<0.01) than never smokers; (ii) in pooled never, current and former smokers carotid and femoral IMT correlated to current daily smoking (P<0.01) and lifelong smoking (P<0.001); and (iii) carotid and femoral IMT correlated to age in never smokers (P<0.001), current smokers (P<0.01, P<0.001) and former smokers (P<0.01), with greater slopes in current than in former smokers at carotid site (P<0.05) and in current than in never smokers at femoral site (P<0.05). In women: (i) IMT did not differ by smoking status; (ii) in pooled smokers and non smokers femoral IMT correlated to current daily smoking (P=0.01) and to lifelong smoking (P<0.01) with a lower slope than in men (P<0.001), while carotid IMT did not; and (iii) carotid and femoral IMT correlated to age in never smokers (P<0.001), current smokers (P<0.001, P<0.05) and former smokers (P<0.001, P<0.01) with no different slopes. CONCLUSION: Smoking-related increase in IMT existed in men but not in women, suggesting a possible protection of female gender from early structural arterial alteration of smoking.
|ISSN : ||0021-9150|
|Mesh Heading : ||Adolescent Adult Aged Aging Arteries Carotid Arteries Female Femoral Artery Humans Male Middle Aged Smoking Time Factors Tunica Intima Tunica Media physiology ultrasonography ultrasonography ultrasonography ultrasonography|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||Sex Characteristics ultrasonography adverse effects|
Sex and topographic differences in associations between large-artery wall thickness and coronary risk profile in a French working cohort: the AXA Study.
Journal - Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology (UNITED STATES )
Previous reports have investigated associations between carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and cardiovascular risk factors. Our objective was to investigate this question in greater depth by measuring both femoral and carotid IMT in relation to sex and multifactorial coronary risk. We investigated carotid and femoral artery IMT by using ultrasonography in 326 men and 462 women, 17 to 65 years old. We also evaluated body mass index, blood pressure, blood lipids, glucose, smoking, and Framingham coronary risk. In both vessels, IMT was lower in women than in men. Significant relations between carotid and femoral IMT existed with age and most risk factors in both sexes. After adjustment for age, carotid IMT was related to risk factors in both sexes except for diastolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, and smoking in women, whereas femoral IMT was related to triglycerides and smoking in both sexes, systolic blood pressure and blood glucose in men, and total and HDL cholesterol in women. Significant unadjusted and age-adjusted relations of Framingham risk existed with carotid and femoral IMT in both sexes, but slopes of these relations were greater (1) before than after age adjustment, (2) in men than in women at both sites, except the femoral artery after age adjustment, and (3) at the carotid than at the femoral site in both sexes before age adjustment. Carotid IMT in men appears to be a more powerful predictor than it is in women and femoral IMT in both sexes in reflecting multifactorial coronary risk burden, but these differences are partly conditional on age.
|ISSN : ||1079-5642|
|Mesh Heading : ||Adolescent Adult Aged Blood Glucose Blood Pressure Carotid Arteries Cholesterol, HDL Cohort Studies Coronary Disease Female Femoral Artery France Humans Male Middle Aged Risk Factors Smoking metabolism blood pathology|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||Sex Characteristics ultrasonography ultrasonography ultrasonography|
Wall thickening of carotid and femoral arteries in male subjects with isolated hypercholesterolemia. PCVMETRA Group. Prevention Cardio-Vasculaire en Medecine du Travail.
Journal - Atherosclerosis (IRELAND )
This study was performed to determine whether hypercholesterolemic men had increased large artery intima-media thickness (IMT), a potential surrogate measure of atherosclerosis, compared to normocholesterolemic controls. The measurements were performed in the far walls of common carotid and femoral arteries with non-invasive automatic computerized ultrasonic technique in 101 asymptomatic men (28-60 years) of whom 40 were normocholesterolemic (total cholesterol < 5.2 mmol/l, controls), 25 had borderline hypercholesterolemia (5.2 < or = total cholesterol < 6.2 mmol/l, group 1) and 36 had hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol > or = 6.2 mmol/l, group 2). All the subjects had no other traditional risk factors, except smoking. Carotid and femoral IMT were significantly increased in group 2 (P < 0.01) but not in group 1 compared to controls. When all subjects were pooled for analysis, carotid and femoral IMT were correlated (r = 0.47, P < 0.001) and increased with total cholesterol (r = 0.35, P < 0.001) and LDL cholesterol (r = 0.33, r = 0.34, respectively; P < 0.001). Carotid and femoral IMT increased with age in each group: controls, r = 0.46, P < 0.01 and r = 0.50, P < 0.001, respectively; group 1, r = 0.42, P < 0.05; group 2, r = 0.48, P < 0.01, and r = 0.59, P < 0.001, respectively. At the carotid and femoral sites, the regression slopes between age and IMT were steeper in group 2 than in controls (P < 0.01). Thus, hypercholesterolemia was associated with diffuse large artery wall thickening, whose presence might be useful in the identification of those hypercholesterolemic individuals most prone to developing atheromatous changes, in the decision to treat, and in the monitoring of lipid-lowering treatment.
|ISSN : ||0021-9150|
|Mesh Heading : ||Adult Analysis of Variance Arteriosclerosis Carotid Arteries Case-Control Studies Femoral Artery Humans Hypercholesterolemia Image Processing, Computer-Assisted Male Middle Aged Reproducibility of Results Risk Factors ultrasonography physiopathology physiopathology physiopathology|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||ultrasonography ultrasonography ultrasonography|
Evidence for in vivo carotid and femoral wall thickening in human hypertension. Groupe de Prévention Cardio-vasculaire en Médecine du Travail.
Journal - Hypertension (UNITED STATES )
Little is known of the in vivo structural changes of large arteries in uncomplicated hypertension. Therefore, we measured the intima-media thickness and lumen diameter of common carotid and femoral arteries by a computerized ultrasonographic technique in 25 normotensive and 25 never treated hypertensive men of similar age (from 25 to 72 years). The intraobserver variability of carotid and femoral wall thicknesses was 4.3% and 5.6%, respectively. Moreover, an in vitro study of 13 human arterial segments removed at autopsy demonstrated a strong correlation (r = .989, P < .001) between computerized ultrasonic and histological intima-media thickness measurements. Compared with control subjects, hypertensive patients had similar arterial diameters but higher carotid and femoral intima-media thicknesses (P < .001) as well as higher ratios of carotid and femoral intima-media thickness to lumen (P < .001, P < .01). The carotid thickness was correlated with age in control subjects (r = .48, P < .05) but not in hypertensive patients. The femoral thickness was correlated with age both in control subjects (r = .55, P < .01) and in hypertensive patients (r = .46, P < .05). Thus, carotid and femoral arterial walls of hypertensive patients were thickened. This thickening was not due to age, although aging also thickened both vessels in control subjects and the femoral artery only in hypertensive patients. Such a wall thickening associated with a normal diameter provides direct evidence of vascular growth and represents a new target to monitor noninvasively in vivo for large artery changes in human hypertension.
|ISSN : ||0194-911X|
|Mesh Heading : ||Adult Age Factors Aged Blood Pressure Carotid Artery, Common Diastole Femoral Artery Humans Hypertension Image Processing, Computer-Assisted Least-Squares Analysis Male Middle Aged Ultrasonography ultrasonography ultrasonography|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||pathology pathology pathology|