Combination of p53 cancer vaccine with chemotherapy in patients with extensive stage small cell lung cancer.
Journal - Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research (United States )
PURPOSE: The initial goal of this study was to test the immunologic and clinical effects of a new cancer vaccine consisting of dendritic cells (DC) transduced with the full-length wild-type p53 gene delivered via an adenoviral vector in patients with extensive stage small cell lung cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Twenty-nine patients with extensive stage small cell lung cancer were vaccinated repeatedly at 2-week intervals. Most of the patients received three immunizations. p53-specific responses were evaluated, and phenotype and function of T cells, DCs, and immature myeloid cells were analyzed and correlated with antigen-specific immune responses. Objective clinical response to vaccination as well as subsequent chemotherapy was evaluated. RESULTS: p53-specific T cell responses to vaccination were observed in 57.1% of patients. Immunologic responses to vaccination were positively associated with a moderate increase in the titer of antiadenovirus antibodies, and negatively with an accumulation of immature myeloid cells. One patient showed a clinical response to vaccination whereas most of the patients had disease progression. However, we observed a high rate of objective clinical responses to chemotherapy (61.9%) that immediately followed vaccination. Clinical response to subsequent chemotherapy was closely associated with induction of immunologic response to vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides clinical support for an emerging paradigm in cancer immunotherapy, wherein optimal use of vaccination might be more effective, not as a separate modality, but in direct combination with chemotherapy.
|ISSN : ||1078-0432|
|Mesh Heading : ||Adult Aged Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols Cancer Vaccines Carcinoma, Small Cell Combined Modality Therapy Dendritic Cells Female Humans Immunotherapy Lung Neoplasms Male Middle Aged Myeloid Cells Phenotype T-Lymphocytes Treatment Outcome Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 genetics immunology immunology drug effects immunology immunology drug effects immunology drug effects immunology genetics immunology|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||therapeutic use therapeutic use drug therapy drug therapy therapeutic use|
B7-1 gene-modified tumor cell vaccines.
Journal - Current opinion in molecular therapeutics (England )
|ISSN : ||1464-8431|
|Mesh Heading : ||Animals Antigens, CD80 Antigens, Neoplasm Cancer Vaccines Clinical Trials as Topic Humans Mice Neoplasms T-Lymphocytes genetics immunology prevention & control therapy immunology|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||genetics genetics immunology|
Gene therapy for lung cancer.
Journal - Current opinion in oncology (UNITED STATES )
The advances that have been made over the past decade in the field of gene transfer as well as in the fields of immunology and the molecular biology of tumorigenesis have brought to reality the possibility of using gene transfer as an anti-cancer treatment modality. The published results of clinical trials using this approach to date have been very limited, and a considerable amount of work still needs to be done in order to make this an effective treatment modality. However the developments that have occurred in the past several years indicate that this modality will become efficacious in the foreseeable future.
|ISSN : ||1040-8746|
|Mesh Heading : ||Apoptosis Genes, Tumor Suppressor Humans Immunotherapy Lung Neoplasms genetics|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||Gene Therapy genetics therapy|
B7-1 gene-modified autologous tumor-cell vaccines for renal-cell carcinoma.
Journal - World journal of urology (GERMANY )
In recent years, interest in the development of immunologic approaches to malignancies has increased, and there is good evidence that the growth of renal-cell carcinoma (RCC) can be modulated by the host's immune system. Indeed, use of the immunomodulatory cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) has been approved for the treatment for this disease. The efficacy of this approach remains low, and there is no other reasonable conventional therapy for patients with metastatic RCC. Therefore, there is a need for the development of novel treatment strategies. The development of autologous tumor-cell vaccines that have been genetically modified to become more immunogenic is an approach that is actively being studied. One of the genetic manipulations that is being employed by several groups is the induction of overexpression of B7-1 to provide costimulation to tumor-reactive T-cells. The rationale for this strategy is that T-cells need two signals before they can mount a cytotoxic response: the binding of the T-cell receptor (TCR) to an antigenic peptide presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and the binding of CD28 to B7-1. Since B7-1 is not normally expressed by RCC cells, the expression forced by transfection of an exogenous B7-1 gene could make the tumor cells more immunogenic. This has been shown to be the case in mice, in which the injection of tumor cells transfected with B7-1 can result in the T-cell-mediated rejection of unmanipulated parental tumor cells. We have applied this approach to the treatment of patients with metastatic RCC. Patients enrolled on our phase I protocol are treated with autologous tumor cells modified to express B7-1, which functions as a tumor vaccine. Primary tumors or metastases are resected from the patients. The tumor cells are adapted to in vitro culture, infected with a recombinant adenoviral vector containing human B7-1 cDNA driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, radiated, and stored in liquid nitrogen. Aliquots of the B7-1 gene-modified tumor cells are given to the patients as a vaccine at varying intervals according to a dose-escalation scheme. The patients also receive systemic IL-2 for the dual purpose of providing accepted therapy for this disease as well as expanding the tumor-reactive T-cells activated by the vaccine. The immunogenicity and toxicity of the vaccine as well as the clinical response are being assessed in three to five patients at each of three dose levels.
|ISSN : ||0724-4983|
|Mesh Heading : ||Antigens, CD80 Carcinoma, Renal Cell Humans Immunotherapy Kidney Neoplasms immunology|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||Cancer Vaccines genetics immunology therapy immunology therapy|
Immunologic nonresponsiveness to tumors.
Journal - Critical reviews in oncogenesis (UNITED STATES )
Over the past several years it has become clear that malignant cells express a variety of tumor associated antigens, and T cells reactive to these antigens have been identified. However, the T cells are not effective in rejecting tumors. In general, T cells that are not tolerized within the thymus have the potential to be rendered tolerant by one of three mechanisms. Immune deviation occurs when regulatory T cells which share a common precursor differentiate away from the phenotype required to effect a particular immune response. Anergy induction occurs when a T cell is stimulated through its T cell receptor in the absence of costimulation. Activation-induced cell death (AICD) is apoptosis of activated T cells upon subsequent encounter with antigen. There is emerging information that some of these mechanisms can be responsible for the lack of T cell responsiveness to tumor cells. Also, tumor cells can acquire attributes that interfere with an immune response, including down-regulation of MHC molecules or other molecules involved in antigen processing; secretion of the immunosuppressive cytokine TGFbeta; and expression of the apoptosis-inducing surface molecule, Fas ligand. An expansion in our understanding of how tumor cells evade a T cell mediated death will provide insight into potential strategies to improve immunotherapeutic approaches to cancer patients.
|ISSN : ||0893-9675|
|Mesh Heading : ||Animals Antigens, Neoplasm Humans Neoplasms T-Lymphocytes|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||Immune Tolerance immunology immunology|
Cloning and partial characterization of the mouse B7-1 promoter.
Journal - Immunogenetics (UNITED STATES )
|ISSN : ||0093-7711|
|Mesh Heading : ||Animals Antigens, CD80 Base Sequence Cell Line Cloning, Molecular DNA Mutational Analysis Gene Expression Regulation Genes, Reporter Mice Molecular Sequence Data Sequence Analysis, DNA Sequence Deletion Transcription, Genetic Transfection|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||Promoter Regions, Genetic genetics|
Concurrent paclitaxel/cisplatin with thoracic radiation in patients with stage IIIA/B non-small cell carcinoma of the lung.
Journal - Seminars in oncology (UNITED STATES )
Nine patients with stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer were entered into a phase II trial designed to determine the feasibility of giving a combination of paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) plus cisplatin concurrent with thoracic radiation. Paclitaxel was given as a 24-hour infusion (135 mg/m2) followed by cisplatin (75 mg/m2) every 4 weeks, for a total of four cycles. Thoracic radiation was given concurrently with the first two cycles of chemotherapy, for a total dose of 64.8 Gy over 6 weeks. Neutropenia and esophagitis were the most common toxicities, with 66% of patients experiencing grade 3 or 4 neutropenia and 55% experiencing grade 3 or 4 esophagitis. Grade 3 pulmonary toxicity developed in 33% of patients. All patients were able to receive the full dose of radiation, although half of the patients required some modification of the chemotherapy regimen. There was one complete response and four partial responses, yielding a 56% overall response rate. This study demonstrates that it is feasible to treat patients with stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer with paclitaxel/cisplatin plus concurrent thoracic radiation, with a degree of toxicity comparable with that associated with a degree of toxicity comparable with that associated with other concurrent combined-modality regimens for this disease.
|ISSN : ||0093-7754|
|Mesh Heading : ||Aged Aged, 80 and over Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung Cisplatin Combined Modality Therapy Esophagitis Feasibility Studies Female Humans Infusions, Intravenous Lung Lung Neoplasms Male Middle Aged Neoplasm Staging Neutropenia Paclitaxel Radiotherapy Radiotherapy Dosage Remission Induction Thorax adverse effects adverse effects etiology drug effects radiation effects etiology adverse effects adverse effects|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||therapeutic use drug therapy radiotherapy administration & dosage drug therapy radiotherapy administration & dosage|