Journal - Current treatment options in gastroenterology (United States )
Praziquantel is the treatment of choice for schistosomiasis because of its efficacy, ease of administration, limited side effects, and low cost. Praziquantel has been so effective that alternative therapies are increasingly difficult to obtain, and the development of novel medications has been limited. The possibility of praziquantel resistance is a grave concern. Low cure rates for praziquantel have been reported in several countries, but despite widespread use, no significant loss of efficacy has occurred to date. The primary goal of antischistosomal therapy is parasite eradication, which reduces the likelihood of chronic complications, including advanced hepatic fibrosis. Mild to moderate hepatic fibrosis results from the immune response to schistosome eggs deposited in the portal venules and reverses with successful treatment. Most individuals clear schistosomiasis with a single course of therapy. Repeat doses cure the majority of patients in whom eradication does not occur after the initial dose. A secondary goal of therapy for patients with persistent or recurrent infection is egg burden reduction, which also reduces the risk of hepatic fibrosis and lowers community spread. Community eradication programs in highly endemic regions use periodic retreatment to limit chronic schistosomiasis' morbidity. Advanced liver fibrosis and portal hypertension due to chronic schistosomiasis are irreversible. Variceal bleeding is the primary cause of death in hepatic schistosomiasis. The bleeding risk is best reduced through use of beta-blocker prophylaxis or endoscopic banding or sclerotherapy. Surgical management of varices, including splenectomy with esophagogastric devascularization or selective shunts such as the distal splenorenal, is effective in patients with recalcitrant bleeding. Because hepatic synthetic function is normal in patients with schistosomiasis, procedures that reduce portal pressures may lower hepatic perfusion and cause hepatic impairment. The risk of encephalopathy after shunt surgery is higher in patients with schistosomiasis than in those with cirrhosis. For these reasons, nonselective shunt surgery such as the proximal splenorenal or the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt should not be performed in patients with advanced hepatic schistosomiasis.
Cost effectiveness of alternative surveillance strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis.
Journal - Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association (United States )
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The increasing incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the United States has significant health and economic consequences. Ultrasound (US) surveillance is recommended for patients with cirrhosis because of their high risk of HCC and improving treatment outcomes for small tumors. We assessed the costs, clinical benefits, and cost effectiveness of US surveillance and alternative strategies for HCC in cirrhosis using a computer-based state transition model with parameters derived from available literature. METHODS: Our model compared a policy of no surveillance with 6 surveillance strategies in cirrhotic patients ages 50 years and older in the United States: (1) annual US, (2) semiannual US, (3) semiannual US with alpha-fetoprotein, (4) annual computed tomography (CT), (5) semiannual CT, and (6) annual magnetic resonance imaging. The number of screening tests needed to detect one small HCC, cost per treated HCC, lifetime costs, quality-adjusted life expectancy, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated. RESULTS: Semiannual US surveillance for HCC in cirrhosis increased quality-adjusted life expectancy by 8.6 months on average, but extended it nearly 3.5 years in patients with small treated tumors. Semiannual US surveillance had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $30,700 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained, and was more cost effective than the alternative surveillance strategies using a threshold of $50,000 per QALY gained. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for the combined alpha-fetoprotein/US and annual CT strategies exceeded $50,000/QALY unless the sensitivity and specificity of US decreased to less than 65% and 60%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Semiannual US surveillance for HCC in cirrhotic patients improves clinical outcomes at a reasonable cost.
Hepatitis C Virus in the HIV-infected patient.
Journal - Clinics in liver disease (United States )
Treatment of HCV in the coinfected patient poses numerous challenges to the clinician: difficult comorbidities, an increased risk of medication side effects, and a therapy with limited response rates. End-stage liver disease from HCV has become a leading cause of death in coinfected patients. Without focused disease management, the burden of chronic liver disease in this population will rise. This article discusses the major trials investigating the use of interferon and ribavirin in coinfected patients, proposes a treatment algorithm for HCV/HIV coinfection, and considers approaches to patients who do not respond to this treatment.
|ISSN : ||1089-3261|
|Mesh Heading : ||Antiviral Agents Drug Administration Schedule Drug Therapy, Combination HIV Infections Hepatitis C Humans Immunologic Factors administration & dosage drug therapy diagnosis therapeutic use|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||therapeutic use complications complications drug therapy|