Analysis of a promoter polymorphism of the GLUT1 gene in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
Journal - Molecular membrane biology (England )
The glucose transporter isoform 1 (GLUT1) is a key rate-limiting factor in the transport and metabolism of glucose in cancer cells. Recently, we found that GLUT1 expression is increased in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and promotes tumorigenicity of HCC cells. Hypoxia further increased GLUT1 expression in HCC cells, and this induction was dependent on the activation of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha. The promoter region of the GLUT1 gene harbors a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; Rs710218; A to T at -2841) closely positioned to a putative HIF-1alpha binding site, and recently, this SNP was found to be more frequent in patients with renal cell carcinoma. In the present study, the A-2841T genotype distribution did not differ significantly between HCC patients (n = 95; AA: 60%; AT 36% and TT: 4%) and healthy controls (n = 127; AA: 50%; AT 41% and TT: 9%). However and noteworthy, non-carriers of the T allele had higher GLUT1 expression levels in cancerous hepatic tissue, and tended to reveal a more aggressive tumour growth. These data indicate that the SNP Rs710218 is not associated with a higher risk for HCC but rather for HCC progression, potentially via HIF-1alpha mediated increased GLUT1 expression.
|ISSN : ||1464-5203|
|Mesh Heading : ||Carcinoma, Hepatocellular Female Glucose Transporter Type 1 Humans Immunohistochemistry Liver Neoplasms Male Middle Aged Polymorphism, Genetic Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length Promoter Regions, Genetic Tissue Array Analysis|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||genetics genetics genetics genetics genetics|
FHL2 suppresses growth and differentiation of the colon cancer cell line HT-29.
Journal - Oncology reports (Greece )
Four and a half LIM domain protein 2 (FHL2) can interact with many proteins and regulates different cellular processes, including proliferation and differentiation. FHL2 expression is often deregulated in cancer and may act as both tumor-promoter or tumor-suppressor depending on the type of cancer. Thus, a previous study found that increased FHL2 expression in colon cancer and suppression of FHL2 in a colon cancer cell line with endogenously high FHL2 expression inhibited tumor growth. We applied the opposite strategy, an FHL2 expression plasmid was stably transfected into HT-29 cells, a colon carcinoma cell line which exhibits very low basal levels of FHL2. Stable expression of FHL2 in HT-29 cells induced a G2/M arrest and inhibited anchorage-dependent and -independent growth in vitro. Further, FHL2 expressing HT-29 cell clones revealed significantly higher expression of the differentiation marker E-cadherin but reduced activity of the transcription factor NF-kappaB, which is known to promote colon cancer progression. These findings further underscore the complex role of FHL2 in tumorigenicity, with even different effects on cellular functions of cancer cell lines derived from the same type of tumor and distinctly suggest caution regarding therapeutic strategies targeting FHL2 to treat (colon) cancer.
Activated hepatic stellate cells promote tumorigenicity of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Journal - Cancer science (England )
Liver cirrhosis is the main risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are the effector cells of hepatic fibrosis and also infiltrate the HCC stroma where they might play a critical role in HCC progression. Here we aimed to analyze the effects of activated HSC on the proliferation and growth of HCC cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Conditioned media (CM) collected from HSC significantly induced proliferation and migration of HCC cells cultured in monolayers. In a 3-dimensional spheroid coculture system, HSC promoted HCC growth and diminished the extent of central necrosis. In accordance, in vivo simultaneous implantation of HSC and HCC cells into nude mice promoted tumor growth and invasiveness, and inhibited necrosis formation. As potential mechanism of the tumorigenic effects of HSC we identified activation of NFkappaB and extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) in HCC cells, two signaling cascades that play a crucial role in HCC progression. In summary, our data indicate that stromal HSC promotes HCC progression and suggest the HSC-HCC interaction as an interesting tumor differentiation-independent target for therapy of this highly aggressive cancer.
|ISSN : ||1349-7006|
|Mesh Heading : ||Animals Carcinoma, Hepatocellular Cell Line, Tumor Cell Movement Cell Proliferation Coculture Techniques Culture Media, Conditioned Enzyme Activation Hepatic Stellate Cells Humans Liver Neoplasms Mice Mice, Nude Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 NF-kappa B Neurotrophin 3 Organ Culture Techniques RNA, Messenger Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays metabolism metabolism metabolism genetics metabolism analysis|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||pathology drug effects drug effects pharmacology metabolism pathology|
GLUT1 expression is increased in hepatocellular carcinoma and promotes tumorigenesis.
Journal - The American journal of pathology (United States )
Accelerated glycolysis is one of the biochemical characteristics of cancer cells. The glucose transporter isoform 1 (GLUT1) gene encodes a key rate-limiting factor in glucose transport into cancer cells. However, its expression level and functional significance in hepatocellular cancer (HCC) are still disputed. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the expression and function of the GLUT1 gene in cases of HCC. We found significantly higher GLUT1 mRNA expression levels in HCC tissues and cell lines compared with primary human hepatocytes and matched nontumor tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis of a tissue microarray of 152 HCC cases revealed a significant correlation between Glut1 protein expression levels and a higher Ki-67 labeling index, advanced tumor stages, and poor differentiation. Accordingly, suppression of GLUT1 expression by siRNA significantly impaired both the growth and migratory potential of HCC cells. Furthermore, inhibition of GLUT1 expression reduced both glucose uptake and lactate secretion. Hypoxic conditions further increased GLUT1 expression levels in HCC cells, and this induction was dependent on the activation of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha. In summary, our findings suggest that increased GLUT1 expression levels in HCC cells functionally affect tumorigenicity, and thus, we propose GLUT1 as an innovative therapeutic target for this highly aggressive tumor.
|ISSN : ||1525-2191|
|Mesh Heading : ||Blotting, Western Carcinoma, Hepatocellular Cell Hypoxia Cell Line, Tumor Cell Movement Cell Proliferation Flow Cytometry Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic Glucose Transporter Type 1 Humans Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit Immunohistochemistry Liver Neoplasms RNA, Messenger Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction Tissue Array Analysis Transfection genetics pathology genetics genetics genetics metabolism genetics pathology analysis|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||metabolism biosynthesis metabolism|
GLUT1 as a therapeutic target in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Journal - Expert opinion on therapeutic targets (England )
Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most fatal cancers in humans with rising incidence in many regions around the world. Currently, no satisfactory curative pharmacological treatment is available, and the outcome is mostly poor. Recently, we have shown that the glucose transporter GLUT1 is increased in a subset of patients with HCC and functionally affects tumorigenicity. GLUT1 is a rate-limiting transporter for glucose uptake, and its expression correlates with anaerobic glycolysis. This phenomenon is also known as the Warburg effect and recently became of great interest, since it affects not only glucose uptake and utilization but also has an influence on tumorigenic features like metastasis, chemoresistance and escape from immune surveillance. Consistent with this, RNA-interference-mediated inhibition of GLUT1 expression in HCC cells resulted in reduced tumorigenicity. Together, these findings indicate that GLUT1 is a novel and attractive therapeutic target for HCC. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the expression and function of GLUT1 in HCC, available drugs/strategies to inhibit GLUT1 expression or function, and potential side effects of such therapeutic strategies.