Molecular surveillance of circulating dengue genotypes through European travelers.
Journal - Journal of travel medicine (United States )
Dengue viruses (DENV) are the most widespread arthropod-borne viruses, which have shown an unexpected geographic expansion, as well as an increase in number and severity of outbreaks in the last decades. Although the emergence of dengue is considered to be due to a number of complex factors, epidemiological studies have shown that some strains of dengue might be associated with increased severity and higher transmission rates than others. In this context, surveillance and identification of the appearance or introduction of more virulent strains, along with fluctuation of DENV among endemic areas are now considered essential public health activities.Samples from travelers returning from the tropics with acute dengue infections were analyzed to obtain up-dated information on circulating dengue strains. A short nucleotide fragment located in the carboxyl terminus of the dengue E gene was used for the characterization of DENV strains and the identification of their sero- and genotype.One hundred eighty-six new dengue strains have been classified into 12 distinct genotype groups within the four dengue serotypes. The identification of the emergence of different sero- and genotypes, the appearance of new clades correlating with outbreaks, and the identification of a dengue-4 genotype not previously reported have been achieved. Interestingly, African strains characterized in this study have provided valuable data on dengue circulation on the continent.This work demonstrates the convenience of routine application of molecular epidemiology analyses in dengue diagnosis laboratories. The use of molecular epidemiology tools on the analysis of imported dengue infections strengthens data acquisition on dengue strain movements correlating with epidemiological changes. The importance of surveillance of imported diseases contributing data for the epidemiological knowledge of infectious diseases in endemic areas has been once more demonstrated.© 2011 International Society of Travel Medicine.
2 international external quality control assessment for the molecular diagnosis of dengue infections.
Journal - PLoS neglected tropical diseases (United States )
BACKGROUND: Currently dengue viruses (DENV) pose an increasing threat to over 2.5 billion people in over 100 tropical and sub-tropical countries worldwide. International air travel is facilitating rapid global movement of DENV, increasing the risk of severe dengue epidemics by introducing different serotypes. Accurate diagnosis is critical for early initiation of preventive measures. Different reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) methods are available, which should be evaluated and standardized. Epidemiological and laboratory-based surveillance is required to monitor and guide dengue prevention and control programmes, i.e., by mosquito control or possible vaccination (as soon as an effective and safe vaccine becomes available). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the external quality assurance (EQA) study described is to assess the efficiency and accuracy of dengue molecular diagnosis methods applied by expert laboratories. STUDY DESIGN: A panel of 12 human plasma samples was distributed and tested for DENV-specific RNA. The panel comprised 9 samples spiked with different DENV serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4), including 10-fold dilution series of DENV-1 and DENV-3. Two specificity controls consisted of a sample with a pool of 4 other flaviviruses and a sample with chikungunya virus. A negative control sample was also included. RESULTS: Thirty-seven laboratories (from Europe, Middle East Asia, Asia, the Americas/Caribbean, and Africa) participated in this EQA study, and reports including 46 sets of results were returned. Performance among laboratories varied according to methodologies used. Only 5 (10.9%) data sets met all criteria with optimal performance, and 4 (8.7%) with acceptable performance, while 37 (80.4%) reported results showed the need for improvement regarding accomplishment of dengue molecular diagnosis. Failures were mainly due to lack of sensitivity and the presence of false positives. CONCLUSIONS: The EQA provides information on each laboratory's efficacy of RT-PCR techniques for dengue diagnosis and indicates for most laboratories an urgent need to improve sensitivity and specificity.
Safety of 17D derived yellow fever vaccines.
Journal - Expert opinion on drug safety (England )
BACKGROUND: Yellow fever, a mosquito-borne viral haemorrhagic fever, is one of the most lethal viral diseases. At present, an efficient vaccine for prevention is available, but may cause serious adverse events. METHODS: The authors review the up-to-date knowledge for serious adverse events of the yellow fever vaccine (YFSAE): hypersensitivity reactions, neurotropic and viscerotropic syndromes. RESULTS: The incidence of YFSAE has been associated with increasing age and thymus disorders, but still a number of cases with any risk factor remain unexplained, which suggests that other factors, from the virus or the host, could be involved in the appearance of these postvaccinal adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: YFSAE are uncommon but must be prevented. Further research on the virus-host immune response is needed to have a better understanding of the basis for the appearance of these severe side effects after vaccination. Vaccination should be limited to people with a true risk of exposure to wild-type yellow fever virus.
|ISSN : ||1744-764X|
|Mesh Heading : ||Humans Hypersensitivity Risk Factors Vaccination Vaccines, Attenuated Yellow Fever Yellow Fever Vaccine adverse effects|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||etiology adverse effects prevention & control adverse effects|