PKC inhibitor Go6976 induces mitosis and enhances doxorubicin-paclitaxel cytotoxicity in urinary bladder carcinoma cells.
Journal - Cancer letters (Ireland )
Protein kinase C (PKC) alpha/betaI isoenzyme inhibitor Go6976 has been suggested to be a G2 checkpoint abrogator by direct Chk1 inhibition. In the present study, we demonstrate that Go6976 induces mitosis in doxorubicin treated G2-arrested 5637 urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma cells and interestingly also in non-synchronized 5637 cells. Importantly, the results demonstrated that both doxorubicin treated and non-synchronized cancer cells are forced to mitosis by Go6976. However, part of the cells avoid the death in mitosis and continue in the cell cycle which may increase the probability of genomic instability. Cytotoxicity of Go6976 alone and in combination with chemotherapeutic agents was further studied. Go6976 treatment alone induced apoptotic cell death. Cytostatic doxorubicin pre-treatment induced G2 arrest and inhibited the cytotoxic effects of mitosis specific drug paclitaxel. Cytotoxicities of doxorubicin-paclitaxel and doxorubicin-Go6976 sequences could be markedly enhanced by combining Go6976 with paclitaxel after doxorubicin pre-treatment. In doxorubicin-Go6976+paclitaxel sequence, paclitaxel arrested the cells to mitosis and unfavourable progression of the cell cycle was inhibited. Analyzes of the molecular mechanisms underlying Go6976 induced mitosis showed that PKC inhibiting concentrations of Go6976 induced cdc2 activation concentration-dependently in non-synchronized and in DNA damaged cells. Simultaneously, Chk1/2 became deactivated and cdc25C activated in DNA damaged cells, indicating regulatory events upstream. In non-synchronized cells, activation of cdc25C, but not Chk1/2, was observed, suggesting inactivation of c-TAK1. The results of the current study suggest that Go6976 has a synergistic cytotoxic effect when combined with doxorubicin and paclitaxel.
|ISSN : ||0304-3835|
|Mesh Heading : ||Carbazoles Cell Death DNA Damage Doxorubicin Enzyme Inhibitors G2 Phase Humans Indoles Mitosis Models, Biological Paclitaxel Protein Kinase C-alpha Tumor Cells, Cultured Urinary Bladder Neoplasms drug effects pharmacology antagonists & inhibitors|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||pharmacology pharmacology pharmacology drug effects pharmacology physiology pathology|
Heterogeneity of cellular proliferation within transitional cell carcinoma: correlation of protein kinase C alpha/betaI expression and activity.
Journal - The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society (United States )
A total of 18 histological samples containing both transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and normal urothelial epithelium were analyzed for protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha and -betaI expression, and for their phosphorylated substrates. The results showed an increased expression of PKC-alpha in 13 out of 18 samples and -betaI in 11 out of 18 TCC samples when compared with normal urothelium. In addition, 11 out of 18 of the TCC tumors displayed heterogeneous expression of the PKC isoenzymes, with different levels of immunosignal in different areas of the tumor. Within the same sample, areas of highest PKC isoenzyme expression also showed highest classical PKC activity, as estimated by immunodetection of phosphorylated forms of PKC substrates. The areas of highest expression of PKC-alpha and/or -betaI isoenzymes showed also the highest number of cells positive for Ki67, an indicator of proliferation. Immunofluorescence and Western blotting demonstrated that in cultured TCC cells, PKC-alpha was located in the cytoplasm, whereas PKC-betaI was located primarily in the nucleus as a 65-kDa fragment and in the cytoplasm as a full-size 79-kDa protein. Our results indicate that increased expression of PKC-alpha and -betaI leads to increased total classical PKC kinase activity and suggest that increased activity of the isoenzymes plays a role in accelerated growth of TCC. Furthermore, these results suggest that even in carcinoma tissue, PKC expression and activity are under strict control.
|ISSN : ||0022-1554|
|Mesh Heading : ||Carcinoma, Transitional Cell Cell Line, Tumor Cell Proliferation Humans Immunohistochemistry Isoenzymes Phosphorylation Protein Kinase C Protein Kinase C-alpha Urinary Bladder Neoplasms Urothelium biosynthesis metabolism|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||enzymology pathology biosynthesis biosynthesis enzymology pathology|