Deep fascia on the dorsum of the ankle and foot: extensor retinacula revisited.
Journal - Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.) (United States )
This study revisits the anatomy of the deep fascia over the distal leg, ankle, and dorsum of the foot. The arrangement of the deep fascia in these regions was recorded in 14 lower limbs of adult cadavers using photographs and drawings. The fascial layer from all three sites was subsequently removed in toto, and serial thickness measurements were made along its entire length. In addition, fiber disposition was studied under polarized light, and sections were stained to demonstrate collagen. The arrangement of deep fascia is complex. A common and novel finding at all levels is a crisscross, lattice-like arrangement of fibers. There was little evidence of the clearly defined sturdy band of the superior extensor retinaculum (SER) or of the Y-shaped inferior retinaculum (IER) commonly illustrated in topographical anatomy texts. The SER is a complex area with several thickenings commencing about 3 cm proximal to the tip of the lateral malleolus and gradually increasing to reach a maximum of 270 microm about 5 cm above the malleolus, then gradually returning to original thickness, about 9 cm above the malleolus. Fibers crossing diagonally to each other are a feature of the region. The IER characteristically has two forms: either a cross-shaped band (9 specimens) or a thickened "node" with small extensions radiating toward the malleoli (5 specimens), located about 1-2 cm distal to the lateral malleolus and centred over the common tendon of extensor digitorum where it has maximum thickness (430 microm). The deep fascia is thickened and firmly attached over both malleoli and to the tarsals and metatarsals along both borders of the foot. In general, the deep fascial structures were thicker in males than those in females.
|ISSN : ||0897-3806|
|Mesh Heading : ||Aged Aged, 80 and over Ankle Cadaver Connective Tissue Dissection Fascia Female Humans Male Microscopy, Polarization anatomy & histology|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||anatomy & histology anatomy & histology|
Integrating applied anatomy in surgical clerkship in a problem-based learning curriculum.
Journal - Surgical and radiologic anatomy : SRA (Germany )
Little attention has been given to structured teaching of applied anatomy to senior medical students in problem-based learning (PBL) medical schools. A course named "Anatomical Principles in Surgical Practice" was introduced at the Arabian Gulf University (AGU) in 2001 for fifth- and sixth-year medical students during their surgical clerkship rotation. The course aims to emphasize, update and integrate applied anatomical concepts that are essential for surgical practice. The course consists of 15 interactive sessions held weekly to ensure topics coincide with the surgical problem-solving sessions. A questionnaire was administered to students completing their surgical rotations (n = 131) seeking their perceptions about the new course during the academic years 2001, 2002 and 2003. To measure learning outcome, 70 students were also given pre- and post-tests. Positive responses were given by 85.2% of the students for course arrangement, by 92.0% for course content, by 88.3% for clinical correlation, by 95.2% for level of teaching and by 87.2% for overall judgment. The students' mean scores in the post-test (71.7%+/-11.7) was significantly higher than their mean scores in the pre-test (42.3%+/-12.6, p < 0.001). Students liked the course and reported feeling more confident in correlating anatomy with surgery during their rotations. By extending anatomical teaching into the clerkship phase, a link between basic medical and clinical sciences has been established that further enhances vertical integration within a PBL curriculum in a spiral fashion.
|ISSN : ||0930-1038|
|Mesh Heading : ||Anatomy Attitude Bahrain Curriculum Educational Measurement Feedback Female General Surgery Humans Male Personal Satisfaction Program Development Program Evaluation Students, Medical psychology|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||Clinical Clerkship Problem-Based Learning education education|
Structured problem-related anatomy demonstrations: making order of random teaching events.
Journal - Teaching and learning in medicine (United States )
BACKGROUND: A standardized learning activity called "Structured Problem-Related Anatomy Demonstrations" was recently implemented. This activity is intended to be a substitute to the need-based instruction method in which students schedule appointments in small groups or individually with faculty to discuss issues and difficulties related to anatomy the students have encountered during their tutorial discussions and self-study learning. DESCRIPTION: Students in a given year were divided into 2 groups. Each group was further divided into 4 small groups (n = 10) who rotated through 4 "stations." A faculty member who demonstrated a specific aspect of anatomy related to the weekly health problem staffed each of the stations. EVALUATION: The effect of the new method of instruction on students' performance in end-of-unit examinations was not statistically significant. A 5-point scale questionnaire seeking the perceptions of 3rd- and 4th-year medical students (n = 176), who had experience with both methods, was used. The means +/- standard deviation of students' responses to items related to organization was 3.61 +/- 0.55, to knowledge was 4.29 +/- 0.73, to integration was 3.91 +/- 0.73, and to skills was 3.84 +/- 0.83. The vast majority of students expressed their overall support for continuing the new system (4.54 +/- 0.58). CONCLUSIONS: The new method increased students' satisfaction and confidence while maintaining their level of performance in final assessments. Faculty have more control over their schedules and can devote more quality time to teaching and research.
|ISSN : ||1040-1334|
|Mesh Heading : ||Anatomy Bahrain Education, Medical Educational Status Focus Groups Questionnaires|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||education methods|
Bilateral absence of ansa cervicalis replaced by vagocervical plexus: case report and literature review.
Journal - Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft (Germany )
The bilateral absence of the ansa cervicalis was discovered during dissection of the neck in an elderly male cadaver. On both sides it was replaced by a vagocervical plexus formed by the vagus nerve and C1 and C2 ventral rami from the cervical plexus. A descending branch from this vagocervical plexus supplied the strap muscles of the neck. From a review of the literature the incidence of bilateral absence of the ansa cervicalis and its replacement by a vagocervical plexus appears to be extremely rare. Morphological variability, embryological basis, and clinical relevance of this uncommon anatomical variant are discussed.
|ISSN : ||0940-9602|
|Mesh Heading : ||Aged Autopsy Cervical Plexus Humans Hypoglossal Nerve Middle Aged Muscle, Skeletal anatomy & histology embryology abnormalities anatomy & histology innervation|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||abnormalities anatomy & histology|
Three-headed biceps brachii muscle associated with duplicated musculocutaneous nerve.
Journal - Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.) (United States )
A unilateral three-headed biceps brachii muscle coinciding with an unusual variant of the musculocutaneous nerve was found during routine dissection of a 79-year-old male cadaver. The supernumerary bicipital head originated from the antero-medial surface of the humerus just beyond the insertion of the coracobrachialis, and inserted into the conjoined tendon of biceps brachii. Associated with this muscular variant was a duplicated musculocutaneous nerve. The proximal musculocutaneous nerve conformed to the normal pattern only in its proximal part, and terminated after innervating the coracobrachialis and biceps brachii muscles. The distal musculocutaneous nerve arose from the median nerve in the lower arm, then passed laterally between the supernumerary bicipital head and the brachialis muscles, supplying both and terminating as the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm. The supernumerary bicipital head and the accompanying anomaly of the musculocutaneous nerve seem to be unique in literature.
|ISSN : ||0897-3806|
|Mesh Heading : ||Aged Arm Cadaver Humans Male Muscle, Skeletal Musculocutaneous Nerve blood supply innervation anatomy & histology blood supply anatomy & histology|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||anatomy & histology abnormalities innervation abnormalities|
Clinical anatomy in the clerkship phase of a problem-based medical curriculum.
Journal - Medical education (England )
|ISSN : ||0308-0110|
|Mesh Heading : ||Anatomy Arabia Attitude of Health Personnel Curriculum Education, Medical Humans Problem-Based Learning Questionnaires|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||education methods methods|
Evaluation of the teaching strategy of cardiovascular system in a problem-based curriculum: student perception.
Journal - Advances in physiology education (United States )
It is generally acknowledged that an integrated approach to teaching cardiovascular system (CVS) is clinically relevant. However, very little attention has been paid with respect to student perception of teaching CVS in an integrated problem-based curriculum. A questionnaire on the feedback and perception of medical students (n = 60) to their learning experience of CVS exposed early in the problem-based integrated curriculum at the Arabian Gulf University (AGU) was used. The average percentage scores of positive student responses to items related to knowledge was 62.7%, to integration was 87.3%, and to skills was 77.1%. A significant positive correlation was observed among skills and knowledge (r = 0.408, P = 0.002), skills and integration (r = 0.506, P < 0.000), and integration and knowledge (r = 0.294, P = 0.028). The lowest individual percentage score related to knowledge items was given to the role of resource sessions in understanding difficult concepts (32.7%). Interestingly, 90.7% of the students were aware of the presence of gaps in their knowledge. On the other hand, 92.7% of students expressed their satisfaction with the study experience of CVS in the integrated problem-based approach. These results indicate that students overall achieved satisfactory learning outcome during the study of CVS in the problem-based integrated curriculum at AGU. The study also points out issues where improvement and fine tuning of the educational system can take place.
|ISSN : ||1043-4046|
|Mesh Heading : ||Education, Medical Humans Physiology Problem-Based Learning Questionnaires Students, Medical standards|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||methods education methods psychology|