Profuse sialorrhea in a case of anti N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis.
Journal - Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
Delayed posthypoxic leukoencephalopathy following a morphine overdose.
Journal - Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
We describe one patient and review the literature to define delayed posthypoxic leukoencephalopathy, its etiology, pathophysiology and prognosis. We present a 54-year-old man with confusion and diffuse rigidity following a morphine overdose that had required intubation three weeks previously. A brain CT scan showed bilateral globi pallidi hypodensities and diffusion-weighted brain MRI (DWI) was consistent with acute cerebral anoxia. On day 20 after the initial presentation, the patient insidiously progressed to a state of "akinetic mutism". The brain MRI showed diffuse hyperintensity of the white matter on T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences. These areas were bright on DWI and were hypointense on the apparent diffusion coefficient map. An extensive autoimmune, metabolic, toxicological, and infectious work-up included arylsulfatase A enzyme levels, which were unremarkable. Therapy with levodopa was initiated with subsequent improvement of the diffuse rigidity. At discharge, the patient continued to be lethargic with moderate rigidity but began to display signs of recovery. He eventually fully recovered with residual mild confusion. Thus, delayed hypoxic leukoencephalopathy is a rare complication of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, occurring in 2.75% of victims of carbon monoxide poisoning. It typically manifests two to 40days after apparent recovery from an obtunded state. Prognosis is variable, but recovery can be complete. This report brings to light an important syndrome that can easily be misdiagnosed. Patients who present with these clinical and radiographic features should be treated fully and given time to recover without abrupt withdrawal of care.Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Varicella zoster virus ischemic optic neuropathy and subclinical temporal artery involvement.
Journal - Archives of neurology (United States )
To demonstrate varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection in an asymptomatic extracranial (temporal) artery in a patient with ischemic optic neuropathy produced by VZV vasculopathy in whom the pathological changes were mistakenly identified as giant cell arteritis.Case report.Teaching hospital, pathology and virology laboratory.An 80-year-old man with left ophthalmic distribution zoster who developed left ischemic optic neuropathy.An ipsilateral temporal artery biopsy revealed inflammation that was mistakenly identified as giant cell arteritis. The patient was initially treated with steroids but his condition did not improve. When the diagnosis of VZV vasculopathy was confirmed virologically and the patient was treated with intravenous acyclovir, his vision improved.Pathological and virological studies provided proof of VZV vasculopathy in the asymptomatic temporal artery. Varicella zoster virus antigen was abundant in arterial adventitia and scattered throughout the media. With intravenous antiviral therapy, the patient's vision improved.Although in previously studied patients who died of chronic VZV vasculopathy after 10 to 12 months, VZV antigen was present exclusively in the intima, collective analyses of chronic cases and the asymptomatic VZV-infected temporal artery suggest that virus enters arteries through the adventitia and spreads transmurally to the intima.
|ISSN : ||1538-3687|
|Mesh Heading : ||Aged, 80 and over Diagnosis, Differential Herpes Zoster Herpesvirus 3, Human Humans Male Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic Temporal Arteries Vasculitis virology virology virology diagnosis virology|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||diagnosis isolation & purification diagnosis pathology|