Methodological developments in the use of visible reflectance spectroscopy for discriminating pasture-fed from concentrate-fed lamb carcasses.
Journal - Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience (England )
The ability to authenticate the feed given to animals from the animal products has become a major challenge for scientists, monitoring bodies and commercial entities alike. This study compared two methods based on the use of the visible reflectance spectrum of the fat to discriminate pasture-fed (P) from stall concentrate-fed (S) lamb carcasses. A total of 307 (143 P and 164 S) Limousine lambs were used over 2 years. Pasture-fed lambs grazed a permanent pasture that was maintained at a leafy, green vegetative stage, and offered ad libitum; they received no supplementation at pasture. Body weight of P lambs when turning out to pasture and at slaughter averaged 9.2 (standard deviation (s.d.) 2.21) kg and 33.2 (s.d. 2.89) kg, respectively. S lambs were fed indoors on an ad libitum diet of commercial concentrate and hay until slaughter at a mean body weight of 33.7 (s.d. 3.62) kg. The reflectance spectrum of perirenal and subcutaneous caudal fat was measured at slaughter and at 24 h post mortem. Plasma carotenoid concentration was measured at slaughter. In method 1, the fat reflectance spectrum data were used at wavelengths between 450 and 510 nm to calculate an index quantifying light absorption by carotenoid pigments. In method 2, a multivariate analysis was performed over the full set of fat reflectance data at wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm. Method 2 yielded a higher proportion of correctly classified lambs compared with method 1 (P < 0.05 to 0.001), except for measurements made at 24 h post mortem on perirenal fat for S lambs. The proportion of lambs correctly classified using method 2 was 87.4% and 92.9% for measurements made on perirenal and caudal fat at slaughter, and 93.9% and 91.0% for measurements made on perirenal and caudal fat 24 h post mortem. Plasma carotenoid concentrations were higher in P lambs than in S lambs (P < 0.001), which led to correct classification of 90.7% of the lambs.
Comparison of visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to discriminate between pasture-fed and concentrate-fed lamb carcasses.
Journal - Meat science (England )
We compared visible and near infrared spectroscopy to distinguish pasture-fed (P) from stall concentrate-fed (S) lamb carcasses. A total of 120 P and 139 S lambs were used. The reflectance spectrum of perirenal fat was measured at wavelengths between 400 and 700nm using a portable spectrophotometer, and at wavelengths between 400 and 2500nm using a laboratory monochromator NIRSystem. In method W(450-510), the reflectance data were used at wavelengths between 450 and 510nm. In methods W(400-700) and W(400-2500), a multivariate analysis was performed over the full set of reflectance data, at wavelengths in the range 400-700nm and 400-2500nm, respectively. The proportion of correctly classified P lambs was 89.1%, 90.8% and 97.5% for W(450-510), W(400-700) and W(400-2500,)W(400-2500) performing best. The proportion of correctly classified S lambs was not significantly different between methods (98.6%, 98.6% and 97.8% for W(450-510), W(400-700) and W(400-2500), respectively).
A dose-response study relating the concentration of carotenoid pigments in blood and reflectance spectrum characteristics of fat to carotenoid intake level in sheep.
Journal - Journal of animal science (United States )
This study was conducted to describe the dose-response curve relating the concentration of carotenoid pigments in plasma and reflectance spectrum characteristics of fat to the carotenoid intake level in sheep, and to investigate the extent to which incorporation of dehydrated alfalfa in the diet affects the reliability of the discrimination between concentrate-fed and pasture-fed lambs based on these measurements. In Exp. 1, 6 treatments were compared in individually penned lambs: feeding 0, 250, 500, 750, 1,000, or 1,250 g/d of dehydrated alfalfa for 60 d before slaughter. Each treatment (T0 to T1,250) consisted of 8 male Romanov x Berrichon lambs with an initial average BW of 24.8 kg (SD 2.6). All lambs received straw for ad libitum intake and T0 to T1,000 lambs received a concentrate free of green vegetative matter in amounts to produce similar ADG in all treatments. In Exp. 2, 33 male Romanov x Berrichon lambs grazed a natural pasture maintained in a leafy green vegetative stage for at least 59 d before slaughter. Initial BW when turning out to pasture was 14.2 kg (SD 2.3). Plasma carotenoid concentration was measured at slaughter by spectrophotometry. Reflectance spectrum, lightness, redness, and yellowness were measured after 24 h of shrinkage in subcutaneous caudal and perirenal fat. The spectra were translated to 0 reflectance at 510 nm, and the integral of the translated spectrum was calculated between 450 and 510 nm (i.e., the range of light absorption by carotenoids). Reflectance measurement was replicated 5 times, from which we calculated the absolute value of the mean integral (AVMI). In Exp. 1, plasma carotenoid concentration at slaughter (PCCS) increased linearly with mean daily carotenoid intake (P < 0.01). Both subcutaneous caudal and perirenal fat AVMI increased linearly (P < 0.01) with mean daily carotenoid intake and PCCS, the slopes of the regressions being greater for perirenal than for subcutaneous caudal fat. The mean PCCS was greater for lambs of Exp. 2 than for lambs on any treatment of Exp. 1 (P < 0.01). We established the dose-response curves relating PCCS and AVMI of subcutaneous and perirenal fat to carotenoid intake level. The combined use of PCCS and of perirenal fat AVMI enabled discrimination of pasture-fed lambs of Exp. 2 from the lambs of Exp. 1 that received up to 500 g/d of dehydrated alfalfa.
|ISSN : ||1525-3163|
|Mesh Heading : ||Adipose Tissue Animal Feed Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena Animals Animals, Newborn Antioxidants Carotenoids Dose-Response Relationship, Drug Male Medicago sativa Random Allocation Sensitivity and Specificity Sheep Spectrophotometry Weight Gain metabolism metabolism blood metabolism growth & development methods veterinary|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||chemistry administration & dosage administration & dosage metabolism|