Determination of simvastatin-induced changes in bone composition and structure by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in rat animal model.
Journal - Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis
Simvastatin is a hypolipidemic drug which is used to control hypercholesterolemia and to prevent cardiovascular disease. In the current study, the effects of high and low doses of simvastatin treatment on tibia of healthy rats were investigated. Wistar rats were used for the control, 20mg and 50mg simvastatin-treated groups. Molecular investigations were performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In the bones of the two groups of simvastatin-treated rats, the relative mineral/matrix ratio (p<0.001), relative carbonate content (p<0.001), carbonate/amide I ratio (p<0.001) and crystallinity (p<0.001) decreased significantly compared to the control group. Low dose of simvastatin treatment is more effective in reducing the relative carbonate content indicating the amount of carbonate substitution for phosphate in the mineral crystal. The olefinic band almost disappeared in the high dose of simvastatin-treated group which implies a decrease in unsaturation and an increase in lipid peroxidation. The higher frequency value and the bandwidth of CH(2) asymmetric stretching band for the 50mg treated group imply more disordered (p<0.001) and fluid (p<0.001) membrane structure. Low dose of simvastatin is more effective in strengthening the bone than high dose simvastatin treatment. High dose simvastatin treatment induces lipid peroxidation and changes the lipid composition and concentration, which are known to affect membrane physical properties.Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Evaluation and discrimination of simvastatin-induced structural alterations in proteins of different rat tissues by FTIR spectroscopy and neural network analysis.
Journal - The Analyst
Statins are commonly used to control hypercholesterolemia and to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Among the statins, Simvastatin is one of the most frequently prescribed statins because of its efficacy in reducing LDL lipoprotein cholesterol levels, its tolerability, and its reduction of cardiovascular risk and mortality. Conflicting results have been reported with regard to benefits (pleiotropic effects) as well as risks (adverse effects) of simvastatin on different soft and hard tissues. In the current study, Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was used to obtain detailed information about protein conformational changes due to simvastatin therapy of soft tissues namely liver, testis, sciatic nerve and hard tissues such as femur and tibia. Protein secondary structural changes were predicted by intensity calculations from second derivative spectra and neural network (NN) analysis, using the amide I band (1700-1600 cm(-1)) of FTIR spectra. Moreover, based on protein secondary structural differences, hierarchial cluster analysis was carried out in the 1700-1600 cm(-1) region. The results of our study in liver, testis and sciatic nerve tissues revealed that simvastatin treatment significantly decreased alpha helix structure and beta sheet structure at 1638 cm(-1), while increased the anti-parallel and aggregated beta sheet and random coil structures implying a simvastatin-induced protein denaturation in treated groups. Different to soft tissues, the results of hard tissue studies on femur and tibia bones revealed increased alpha helix structure and decreased anti-parallel beta sheet, aggregated beta sheet and random coil structures implying more strengthened bone tissues in simvastatin-treated groups. Finally, the simvastatin-treated and control groups for all soft and bone tissues were successfully differentiated using cluster analysis. According to the heterogeneity values in the cluster analysis of these tissues, the sciatic nerve tissue was found to be the most affected tissue from simvastatin treatment among the studied soft tissues. In addition, the high heterogeneity value implied high secondary structural difference between control and simvastatin-treated groups in tibia bone tissues. These findings reveal that FTIR spectroscopy with bioinformatic analyses such as neural network and hierarchical clustering, allowed us to determine the simvastatin-induced protein conformational changes as adverse and pleitropic effects of the drug on different soft and hard tissues.
Differentiation of mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.
Journal - Applied spectroscopy (United States )
In the present study the characterization and differentiation of mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria were investigated by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Our results showed significant differences between the FT-IR spectra of mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria. The protein-to-lipid ratio was significantly higher for thermophiles compared to mesophiles. The absorption intensity of the CH(3) asymmetric stretching vibration was higher in thermophilic bacteria, indicating a change in the composition of the acyl chains. The higher intensity/area observed in the CH(2) symmetric stretching mode at 2857 cm(-1), and the CH(2) bending vibration band at 1452 cm(-1), indicated a higher amount of saturated lipids in thermophilic bacteria. The lipid C=O stretching vibration at 1739 cm(-1), which was observed in the mesophilic group, was not observed clearly in the thermophilic group, indicating a difference in packing that is presumably due to the decreased proportion of unsaturated acyl chains in thermophilic bacteria. In addition, the carbonyl groups become hydrogen bonded and the cellular DNA content was lower in thermophilic bacteria. Moreover, in the 1000-400 cm(-1) frequency region, the spectra of each bacterial species belonging to both the mesophilic and thermophilic bacterial groups, showed characteristic differences that were discriminated via dendrogram using cluster analysis. The current study implies that FT-IR spectroscopy could be successfully applied for the rapid comparison of bacterial groups and species to establish either similarities or discrepancies, as well as to confirm biochemical or physiological characteristics.
|ISSN : ||0003-7028|
|Mesh Heading : ||Bacteria Bacterial Physiological Phenomena Bacterial Proteins Cluster Analysis Culture Media DNA, Bacterial Data Interpretation, Statistical Indicators and Reagents Lipids Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared chemistry chemistry chemistry|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||chemistry|