Fear of childbirth before, during, and after childbirth.
Journal - Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica (Denmark )
BACKGROUND: Only scanty research exists about the relationship between women's expectations during pregnancy and their experiences as reported during the actual process of labor and afterwards. The aims of the present study were: (1) to investigate the associations between fear of childbirth during pregnancy and postpartum and fear and pain during early active labor (phase 1: cervix dilatation 3-5 cm), and (2) to explore possible differences regarding fear of childbirth during pregnancy and postpartum between women who did or did not receive epidural analgesia during labor. Methods. Fear of childbirth was measured in 47 nulliparous women during gestation weeks 37-39 by means of the Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ version A). During early active labor we measured women's fear (Delivery Fear Scale) and their experiences of pain (a pain intensity scale). Finally, fear after childbirth (W-DEQ version B) was measured two hours, two days, and five weeks after delivery. RESULTS: A positive correlation appeared between fear of childbirth during pregnancy, postpartum, and early active labor. There were no differences in fear of childbirth during late pregnancy between women who received epidural analgesia and those who did not. Postpartum fear was higher in the women who had received epidural analgesia. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women who fear childbirth are prone to report fear during the actual labor and postpartum. The administration of epidural analgesia is not a sufficient response to women's fear during the process of labor.
|ISSN : ||0001-6349|
|Mesh Heading : ||Adult Analgesia, Obstetrical Female Humans Labor Onset Parturition Postpartum Period Pregnancy Prospective Studies Questionnaires psychology|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||Fear psychology psychology psychology|
Fear, pain and stress hormones during childbirth.
Journal - Journal of psychosomatic obstetrics and gynaecology (England )
AIMS: To investigate the course of fear, pain and stress hormones during labor, and the associations between fear, pain, stress hormones and duration of labor in nulliparous women with and without epidural analgesia (EDA). METHOD: One day during gestation weeks 37-39, urinary and salivary samples were collected to measure catecholamines and cortisol. Hourly during labor, the participants answered the Delivery Fear Scale and a pain intensity scale, and urinary and salivary samples were collected to measure stress hormones. RESULTS: The course of fear, pain and stress hormones differed throughout labor in women with and without EDA. Pain and cortisol increased throughout labor in women without EDA. Women who received EDA had more fear, but not more pain, before the administration of the EDA than women who did not receive EDA. Pain, fear and catecholamines decreased when women received EDA, but fear and pain increased again later in labor. Fear and pain correlated, as well as levels of fear in the different phases of labor. During phase one of labor epinephrine and duration of the phase were negatively correlated. CONCLUSION: The course of fear, pain and concentrations of stress hormones differed, highly influenced by the administration of EDA. Fear and pain correlated more pronounced than stress hormones and fear, pain and duration of labor.
|ISSN : ||0167-482X|
|Mesh Heading : ||Adult Analgesia, Epidural Analgesia, Obstetrical Catecholamines Fear Female Humans Hydrocortisone Infant, Newborn Labor Pain Labor Stage, First Labor Stage, Second Labor Stage, Third Pain Measurement Parturition Pregnancy Saliva Statistics as Topic psychology psychology psychology blood drug effects psychology blood drug effects psychology blood drug effects psychology psychology psychology metabolism|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||blood physiology blood physiopathology physiology|