Intracellular pH distribution as a cell health indicator in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Journal - Journal of the Royal Society, Interface / the Royal Society (England )
Internal pH regulation is vital for many cell functions, including transport mechanisms and metabolic enzyme activity. More specifically, transport mechanisms are to a wide degree governed by internal pH distributions. We introduce the term standard deviation of the intracellular pH (s.d.(pH(int))) to describe the internal pH distributions. The cellular pH distributional response to external stress such as heat has not previously been determined. In this study, the intracellular pH (pH(i)) and the s.d.(pH(int)) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells exposed to supralethal temperatures were measured using fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy (FRIM). An exponential decline in pH(i) was observed after an initial small decline. For the first time, we report the use of FRIM for determining in vivo plasma membrane proton permeability coefficients in yeast. Furthermore, the exponential decay of pH(i) and the rupture of the cell plasma membrane, as measured by propidium iodide staining, at 70°C were not simultaneous but were separated by a significant temporal difference. Finally, a nonlinear relationship between the pH(i) and s.d.(pH(int)) was found; i.e. the s.d.(pH(int)) was significantly more sensitive to supralethal temperatures than pH(i). s.d.(pH(int)) is therefore proposed as an early health/vitality indicator in S. cerevisiae cells exposed to heat stress.
Effect of long- and short-term exposure to laser light at 1070 nm on growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Journal - Journal of biomedical optics (United States )
The effect of a 1070-nm continuous and pulsed wave ytterbium fiber laser on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae single cells is investigated over a time span of 4 to 5 h. The cells are subjected to optical traps consisting of two counterpropagating plane wave beams with a uniform flux along the x, y axis. Even at the lowest continuous power investigated-i.e., 0.7 mW-the growth of S. cerevisiae cell clusters is markedly inhibited. The minimum power required to successfully trap single S. cerevisiae cells in three dimensions is estimated to be 3.5 mW. No threshold power for the photodamage, but instead a continuous response to the increased accumulated dose is found in the regime investigated from 0.7 to 2.6 mW. Furthermore, by keeping the delivered dose constant and varying the exposure time and power-i.e. pulsing-we find that the growth of S. cerevisiae cells is increasingly inhibited with increasing power. These results indicate that growth of S. cerevisiae is dependent on both the power as well as the accumulated dose at 1070 nm.