Improvement of sensitivity of breast cancer diagnosis with adaptive neighborhood contrast enhancement of mammograms.
Journal - IEEE transactions on information technology in biomedicine : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (UNITED STATES )
Mammograms are difficult to interpret, especially of cancers at their early stages. In this paper, we analyze the effectiveness of our adaptive neighborhood contrast enhancement (ANCE) technique in increasing the sensitivity of breast cancer diagnosis. Seventy-eight screen-film mammograms of 21 difficult cases (14 benign and seven malignant), 222 screen-film mammograms of 28 interval cancer patients and six benign control cases were digitized with a high-resolution of about 4096 x 2048 x 10-bit pixels and then processed with the ANCE method. Unprocessed and processed digitized mammograms as well as the original films were presented to six experienced radiologists for a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) evaluation for the difficult case set and to three reference radiologists for the interval cancer set. The results show that the radiologists' performance with the ANCE-processed images is the best among the three sets of images (original, digitized, and enhanced) in terms of area under the ROC curve and that diagnostic sensitivity is improved by the ANCE algorithm. All of the 19 interval cancer cases not detected with the original films of earlier mammographic examinations were diagnosed as malignant with the corresponding ANCE-processed versions, while only one of the six benign cases initially labeled correctly with the original mammograms was interpreted as malignant after enhancement. McNemar's tests of symmetry indicated that the diagnostic confidence for the interval cancer cases was improved by the ANCE procedure with a high level of statistical significance (p-values of 0.0001-0.005) and with no significant effect on the diagnosis of the benign control cases (p-values of 0.08-0.1). This study demonstrates the potential for improvement of diagnostic performance in early detection of breast cancer with digital image enhancement.
|ISSN : ||1089-7771|
|Mesh Heading : ||Breast Neoplasms Case-Control Studies Female Humans Mammography ROC Curve Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted Sensitivity and Specificity statistics & numerical data methods|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||radiography methods|
Boundary modelling and shape analysis methods for classification of mammographic masses.
Journal - Medical & biological engineering & computing (ENGLAND )
The problem of computer-aided classification of benign and malignant breast masses using shape features is addressed. The aim of the study is to look at the exceptions in shapes of masses such as circumscribed malignant tumours and spiculated benign masses which are difficult to classify correctly using common shape analysis methods. The proposed methods of shape analysis treat the object's boundary in terms of local details. The boundaries of masses analysed using the proposed methods were manually drawn on mammographic images by an expert radiologist (JELD). A boundary segmentation method is used to separate major portions of the boundary and to label them as concave or convex segments. To analyse the shape information localised in each segment, features are computed through an iterative procedure for polygonal modelling of the mass boundaries. Features are based on the concavity fraction of a mass boundary and the degree of narrowness of spicules as characterised by a spiculation index. Two features comprising spiculation index (SI) and fractional concavity (fcc) developed in the present study when used in combination with the global shape feature of compactness resulted in a benign/malignant classification accuracy of 82%, with an area (Az) of 0.79 under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve with a database of the boundaries of 28 benign masses and 26 malignant tumours. SI alone resulted in a classification accuracy of 80% with Az of 0.82. The combination of all the three features achieved 91% accuracy of circumscribed versus spiculated classification of masses based on shape.
|ISSN : ||0140-0118|
|Mesh Heading : ||Algorithms Breast Neoplasms Diagnosis, Differential Female Humans Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||Mammography radiography methods|
Measures of acutance and shape for classification of breast tumors.
Journal - IEEE transactions on medical imaging (UNITED STATES )
Most benign breast tumors possess well-defined, sharp boundaries that delineate them from surrounding tissues, as opposed to malignant tumors. Computer techniques proposed to date for tumor analysis have concentrated on shape factors of tumor regions and texture measures. While shape measures based on contours of tumor regions can indicate differences in shape complexities between circumscribed and spiculated tumors, they are not designed to characterize the density variations across the boundary of a tumor. In this paper we propose a region-based measure of image edge profile acutance which characterizes the transition in density of a region of interest (ROI) along normals to the ROI at every boundary pixel. We investigate the potential of acutance in quantifying the sharpness of the boundaries of tumors, and propose its application to discriminate between benign and malignant mammographic tumors. In addition, we study the complementary use of various shape factors based upon the shape of the ROI, such as compactness, Fourier descriptors, moments, and chord-length statistics to distinguish between circumscribed and spiculated tumors. Thirty-nine images from the Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) database and an additional set of 15 local cases were selected for this study. The cases included 16 circumscribed benign, seven circumscribed malignant, 12 spiculated benign, and 19 spiculated malignant lesions. All diagnoses were proven by pathologic examinations of resected tissue. The contours of the lesions were first marked by an expert radiologist using X-Paint and X-Windows on a SUN-SPARCstation 2 Workstation. For computation of acutance, the ROI boundaries were iteratively approximated using a split/merge and end-point adjustment technique to obtain the best-fitting polygonal approximation. The jackknife method using the Mahalanobis distance measure in the BMDP (Biomedical Programs) package was used for classification of the lesions using acutance and the shape factors as features in various combinations. Acutance alone resulted in a benign/malignant classification accuracy of 95% the MIAS cases. Compactness alone gave a circumscribed/spiculated classification rate of 92.3% with the MIAS cases. Acutance in combination with a moment-based shape measure and a Fourier descriptor-based measure gave four-group classification rate of 95% with the MIAS cases. The results indicate the importance of including lesion edge definition with shape information for classification of tumors, and that the proposed measure of acutance fills this need.
|ISSN : ||0278-0062|
|Mesh Heading : ||Breast Neoplasms Female Humans classification|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||Mammography Radiographic Image Enhancement radiography|
Parametric representation and screening of knee joint vibroarthrographic signals.
Journal - IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering (UNITED STATES )
We have been investigating analysis of knee joint vibration or vibroarthrographic (VAG) signals as a potential tool for noninvasive diagnosis and monitoring of cartilage pathology. In this paper, we present a comprehensive comparative study of different parametric representations of VAG signals. Dominant poles and cepstral coefficients were derived from autoregressive models of adaptively segmented VAG signals. Signal features and a few clinical features were used as feature vectors in pattern classification experiments based on logistic regression analysis and the leave-one-out method. The results using 51 normal and 39 abnormal signals indicated the superior performance of cepstral coefficients in VAG signal classification with an accuracy rate of 75.6%. With 51 normal and 20 abnormal signals limited to chondromalacia patella, cepstral coefficients again gave the highest accuracy rate of 85.9%.
|ISSN : ||0018-9294|
|Mesh Heading : ||Algorithms Arthrography Auscultation Humans Joint Diseases Knee Injuries Knee Joint Logistic Models Monitoring, Physiologic Pattern Recognition, Automated Reference Values Vibration diagnosis instrumentation methods|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||Linear Models Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted methods diagnosis physiopathology|
Phonocardiogram signal analysis: a review.
Journal - Critical reviews in biomedical engineering (UNITED STATES )
Many disease of the heart cause changes in heart sounds and additional murmurs before other signs and symptoms appear. Hence, heart sound analysis by auscultation is the primary test conducted by physicians to assess the condition of the heart. Yet, heart sound analysis by auscultation as well as analysis of the phonocardiogram (PCG) signal have not gained widespread acceptance. This is due mainly to many controversies regarding the genesis of the sounds and the lack of quantitative techniques for reliable analysis of the signal features. The heart sound signal has much more information than can be assessed by the human ear or by visual inspection of the signal tracings on paper as currently practiced. Here, we review the nature of the heart sound signal and the various signal-processing techniques that have been applied to PCG analysis. Some new research directions are also outlined.
|ISSN : ||0278-940X|
|Mesh Heading : ||Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena Electrocardiography Fourier Analysis Heart Auscultation Heart Sounds Humans|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||Phonocardiography Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted classification classification|