Multilocus estimation of pairwise relatedness with dominant markers.
Journal - Molecular ecology (England )
Estimators for pairwise relatedness designed for dominant markers are derived, based on a genetic model that accounts for the full structure of pairwise relatedness between two individuals at a diploid locus with dominance. They jointly estimate 'relatedness' and 'fraternity', in which case the estimators are inherently multilocus, as at least two loci of differing gene frequency are required. Extensions to cases of zero fraternity and isolation by distance (inbreeding) are also examined. Properties of estimators are examined by simulation and compared to the estimator of Hardy. The most statistical power for pairwise relatedness occurs when roughly half of individuals are the recessive phenotype. Estimation procedures are implemented in the computer program mark.
|ISSN : ||0962-1083|
|Mesh Heading : ||Animals Computer Simulation Genes, Dominant Genetic Markers Genetics, Population|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||Models, Genetic methods|
Targeted isolation, sequence assembly and characterization of two white spruce (Picea glauca) BAC clones for terpenoid synthase and cytochrome P450 genes involved in conifer defence reveal insights into a conifer genome
Journal - BMC Plant Biology
BackgroundConifers are a large group of gymnosperm trees which are separated from the angiosperms by more than 300 million years of independent evolution. Conifer genomes are extremely large and contain considerable amounts of repetitive DNA. Currently, conifer sequence resources exist predominantly as expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and full-length (FL)cDNAs. There is no genome sequence available for a conifer or any other gymnosperm. Conifer defence-related genes often group into large families with closely related members. The goals of this study are to assess the feasibility of targeted isolation and sequence assembly of conifer BAC clones containing specific genes from two large gene families, and to characterize large segments of genomic DNA sequence for the first time from a conifer.ResultsWe used a PCR-based approach to identify BAC clones for two target genes, a terpene synthase (3-carene synthase; 3CAR) and a cytochrome P450 (CYP720B4) from a non-arrayed genomic BAC library of white spruce (Picea glauca). Shotgun genomic fragments isolated from the BAC clones were sequenced to a depth of 15.6- and 16.0-fold coverage, respectively. Assembly and manual curation yielded sequence scaffolds of 172 kbp (3CAR) and 94 kbp (CYP720B4) long. Inspection of the genomic sequences revealed the intron-exon structures, the putative promoter regions and putative cis-regulatory elements of these genes. Sequences related to transposable elements (TEs), high complexity repeats and simple repeats were prevalent and comprised approximately 40% of the sequenced genomic DNA. An in silico simulation of the effect of sequencing depth on the quality of the sequence assembly provides direction for future efforts of conifer genome sequencing.ConclusionWe report the first targeted cloning, sequencing, assembly, and annotation of large segments of genomic DNA from a conifer. We demonstrate that genomic BAC clones for individual members of multi-member gene families can be isolated in a gene-specific fashion. The results of the present work provide important new information about the structure and content of conifer genomic DNA that will guide future efforts to sequence and assemble conifer genomes.
A conifer genomics resource of 200,000 spruce (Picea spp.) ESTs and 6,464 high-quality, sequence-finished full-length cDNAs for Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)
Journal - BMC Genomics
BackgroundMembers of the pine family (Pinaceae), especially species of spruce (Picea spp.) and pine (Pinus spp.), dominate many of the world's temperate and boreal forests. These conifer forests are of critical importance for global ecosystem stability and biodiversity. They also provide the majority of the world's wood and fiber supply and serve as a renewable resource for other industrial biomaterials. In contrast to angiosperms, functional and comparative genomics research on conifers, or other gymnosperms, is limited by the lack of a relevant reference genome sequence. Sequence-finished full-length (FL)cDNAs and large collections of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are essential for gene discovery, functional genomics, and for future efforts of conifer genome annotation.ResultsAs part of a conifer genomics program to characterize defense against insects and adaptation to local environments, and to discover genes for the production of biomaterials, we developed 20 standard, normalized or full-length enriched cDNA libraries from Sitka spruce (P. sitchensis), white spruce (P. glauca), and interior spruce (P. glauca-engelmannii complex). We sequenced and analyzed 206,875 3'- or 5'-end ESTs from these libraries, and developed a resource of 6,464 high-quality sequence-finished FLcDNAs from Sitka spruce. Clustering and assembly of 147,146 3'-end ESTs resulted in 19,941 contigs and 26,804 singletons, representing 46,745 putative unique transcripts (PUTs). The 6,464 FLcDNAs were all obtained from a single Sitka spruce genotype and represent 5,718 PUTs.ConclusionThis paper provides detailed annotation and quality assessment of a large EST and FLcDNA resource for spruce. The 6,464 Sitka spruce FLcDNAs represent the third largest sequence-verified FLcDNA resource for any plant species, behind only rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and the only substantial FLcDNA resource for a gymnosperm. Our emphasis on capturing FLcDNAs and ESTs from cDNA libraries representing herbivore-, wound- or elicitor-treated induced spruce tissues, along with incorporating normalization to capture rare transcripts, resulted in a rich resource for functional genomics and proteomics studies. Sequence comparisons against five plant genomes and the non-redundant GenBank protein database revealed that a substantial number of spruce transcripts have no obvious similarity to known angiosperm gene sequences. Opportunities for future applications of the sequence and clone resources for comparative and functional genomics are discussed.
The Genome of Black Cottonwood, Populus trichocarpa (Torr. & Gray)
Journal - Science
We report the draft genome of the black cottonwood tree, Populustrichocarpa. Integration of shotgun sequence assembly with geneticmapping enabled chromosome-scale reconstruction of the genome.More than 45,000 putative protein-coding genes were identified.Analysis of the assembled genome revealed a whole-genome duplicationevent; about 8000 pairs of duplicated genes from that eventsurvived in the Populus genome. A second, older duplicationevent is indistinguishably coincident with the divergence ofthe Populus and Arabidopsis lineages. Nucleotide substitution,tandem gene duplication, and gross chromosomal rearrangementappear to proceed substantially more slowly in Populus thanin Arabidopsis. Populus has more protein-coding genes than Arabidopsis,ranging on average from 1.4 to 1.6 putative Populus homologsfor each Arabidopsis gene. However, the relative frequency ofprotein domains in the two genomes is similar. Overrepresentedexceptions in Populus include genes associated with lignocellulosicwall biosynthesis, meristem development, disease resistance,and metabolite transport. These authors contributed equally to this work as second authors. These authors contributed equally to this work as senior authors.