Environmentally conscious manufacturing and product recovery (ECMPRO): A review of the state of the art.
Journal - Journal of environmental management
Gungor and Gupta [1999, Issues in environmentally conscious manufacturing and product recovery: a survey. Computers and Industrial Engineering, 36(4), 811-853] presented an important review of the development of research in Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing and Product Recovery (ECMPRO) and provided a state of the art survey of published work. However, that survey covered most papers published through 1998. Since then, a lot of activity has taken place in EMCPRO and several areas have become richer. Many new areas also have emerged. In this paper we primarily discuss the evolution of ECMPRO that has taken place in the last decade and discuss the new areas that have come into focus during this time. After presenting some background information, the paper systematically investigates the literature by classifying over 540 published references into four major categories, viz., environmentally conscious product design, reverse and closed-loop supply chains, remanufacturing, and disassembly. Finally, we conclude by summarizing the evolution of ECMPRO over the past decade together with the avenues for future research.