Neurotensin downregulates the pro-inflammatory properties of skin dendritic cells and increases epidermal growth factor expression.
Journal - Biochimica et biophysica acta (Netherlands )
In the last decades some reports reveal the neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) as an immune mediator in the Central Nervous System and in the gastrointestinal tract, however its effects on skin immunity were not identified. The present study investigates the effect of NT on signal transduction and on pro/anti-inflammatory function of skin dendritic cells. Furthermore, we investigated how neurotensin can modulate the inflammatory responses triggered by LPS in skin dendritic cells. We observed that fetal-skin dendritic cells (FSDCs) constitutively express NTR1 and NTR3 (neurotensin receptors) and that LPS treatment induces neurotensin expression. In addition, NT downregulated the activation of the inflammatory signaling pathways NF-?B and JNK, as well as, the expression of the cytokines IL-6, TNF-a, IL-10 and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), while the survival pathway ERK and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were upregulated. Simultaneous dendritic cells exposure to LPS and NT induced a similar cytokine profile to that one induced by NT alone. However, cells pre-treated with NT and then incubated with LPS, completely changed their cytokine profile, upregulating the cytokines tested, without changes on growth factor expression. Overall, our results could open new perspectives in the design of new therapies for skin diseases, like diabetic wound healing, where neuropeptide exposure seems to be beneficial.Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Role of neuropeptides in skin inflammation and its involvement in diabetic wound healing.
Journal - Expert opinion on biological therapy
Importance of the field: In 2010, the world prevalence of diabetes is 6.4%, affecting 285 million adults. Diabetic patients are at risk of developing neuropathy and delayed wound healing that can culminate in incurable diabetic foot ulcerations (DFUs) or even foot amputation. Areas covered in this review: The contrast between cellular and molecular events of wound healing and diabetic wound healing processes is characterized. Neuropeptides released from the autonomous nervous system and skin cells reveal a major role in the immunity of wound healing. Therefore, the signaling pathways that induce pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines expression and its involvement in diabetic wound healing are discussed. The involvement of neuropeptides in the activation, growth, migration and maturation of skin cells, like keratinocytes, Langerhans cells, macrophages and mast cells, are described. What the reader will gain: This review attempts to address the role of neuropeptides in skin inflammation, focusing on signal transduction, inflammatory mediators and pro/anti-inflammatory function, occurring in each cell type, as well as, its connection with diabetic wound healing. Take home message: Understanding the role of neuropeptides in the skin, their application on skin wounds could be a potential therapy for skin pathologies, like the problematic and prevalent DFUs.