Detection of mutations in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in human melanoma.
Journal - Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research (United States )
PURPOSE: Recent studies suggest that activating point mutations in B-RAF may commonly occur in melanoma. We devised a method to detect point mutations in heterogeneous tissues containing both wild-type and mutant B-RAF and N-RAS genes by using site-directed mutagenesis to introduce new restrictions sites in the cDNA sequence when the specific point mutations are present. We used this technique to determine the incidence of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutations in human melanoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We screened 85 melanoma samples for the most common B-RAF and N-RAS mutations found in melanoma using a site-directed mutagenesis-based detection technique. Western blotting was used to evaluate downstream up-regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in these tissues. RESULTS: Thirty-three samples (7 of 25 primaries, 15 of 25 regional metastases, 5 of 25 nodal metastases, and 6 of 10 distant metastases) harbored the V599E B-RAF mutation (39%), 12 contained a Q61R N-RAS mutation and 5 a Q61K N-RAS mutation. Western blotting with antiphosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 antibodies demonstrated up-regulation of the MAPK pathway in samples containing activating B-RAF or N-RAS mutations compared with wild-type samples. This method of detection was sensitive and specific with no false positives. CONCLUSIONS: Activating mutations of the MAPK pathway were present in approximately 60% of samples tested and caused activation of this cellular pathway that appears to be important in the pathogenesis of melanoma.
|ISSN : ||1078-0432|
|Mesh Heading : ||Base Sequence Blotting, Western Codon DNA Primers DNA, Complementary Humans Melanoma Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Molecular Sequence Data Mutagenesis, Site-Directed Point Mutation Sensitivity and Specificity Up-Regulation pharmacology metabolism metabolism metabolism|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||MAP Kinase Signaling System Mutation genetics pathology|