Transthoracic echocardiography in mice.
Journal - Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE (United States )
In recent years, murine models have become the primary avenue for studying the molecular mechanisms of cardiac dysfunction resulting from changes in gene expression. Transgenic and gene targeting methods can be used to generate mice with altered cardiac size and function,(1-3) and as a result, in vivo techniques are needed to evaluate their cardiac phenotype. Transthoracic echocardiography, pulse wave Doppler (PWD), and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) can be used to provide dimensional measurements of the mouse heart and to quantify the degree of cardiac systolic and diastolic performance. Two-dimensional imaging is used to detect abnormal anatomy or movements of the left ventricle, whereas M-mode echo is used for quantification of cardiac dimensions and contractility.(4,5) In addition, PWD is used to quantify localized velocity of turbulent flow,(6) whereas TDI is used to measure the velocity of myocardial motion.(7) Thus, transthoracic echocardiography offers a comprehensive method for the noninvasive evaluation of cardiac function in mice.