S-Glutathiolation in life and death decisions of the cell.
Journal - Free radical research
Abstract Reversible S-glutathiolation of specific proteins at sensitive cysteines provides a powerful mechanism for the dynamic, post-translational regulation of many cellular processes, including apoptosis. Critical in ascribing any regulatory function to S-glutathiolation is its reversibility, mainly regulated by glutaredoxins. Apoptosis is a controlled form of cell death that plays fundamental roles during embryonic development, tissue homeostasis and some diseases. Much of what happens during the demolition phase of apoptosis is orchestrated primarily by caspases, the final executioners of cell death. Recent findings support an essential role for S-glutathiolation in apoptosis, often at the level of caspases or their inactive precursors, and several studies have demonstrated the importance of glutaredoxins in protecting against apoptosis. These observations have contributed to recent advances in apoptosis research. However, the effective relevance of protein S-glutathiolation and the precise molecular targets in apoptotic signalling remain unresolved and a key challenge for future research.