A class Vb chitin synthase in Colletotrichum graminicola is localized in the growing tips of multiple cell types, in nascent septa, and during septum conversion to an end wall after hyphal breakage.
Journal - Protoplasma (Austria )
Previous complementation of a chitin synthase class Vb null mutant (Colletotrichum graminicola chsA) indicated that the encoded protein is responsible for approximately 30% of the conidial chitin, is essential for conidial wall strength in media with high water potential, and contributes to strength of hyphal tips. We complemented a chsA null mutant with chsA fused to the green-fluorescent protein (sgfp) gene driven by a heterologous constitutively expressed promoter. Comparisons of the strain with the ectopic chsA-sgfp to the wild type indicated that ChsA-sGFP serves the same biological functions as ChsA in that like the wild type, the chsADelta chsA::sgfp (EC) had conidia that did not explode and hyphal tips that did not swell. Confocal microscopy of ChsA-sGFP (EC) cells stained with the membrane stain FM 4-64 (N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(6-(4-(diethylamino)phenyl)hexatrienyl)pyridinium dibromide) indicated that ChsA is localized in the plasma membrane of the following: growing apices of hyphal branches, conidiophores, and falcate and oval conidia; in nascent septa; and in septa that are being converted to an end wall after hyphal breakage. The data support the hypothesis that chsA either directly or indirectly encodes the information for its localization, that ChsA is localized in the plasma membrane, and that the class Vb enzyme produces chitin synthase in multiple cells and after wall breakage.
|ISSN : ||0033-183X|
|Mesh Heading : ||Cell Membrane Cell Wall Chitin Synthase Colletotrichum Green Fluorescent Proteins Hyphae Protein Transport metabolism growth & development metabolism|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||metabolism metabolism cytology enzymology metabolism|
Diversity of type I polyketide synthase genes in the wood-decay fungus Xylaria sp. BCC 1067.
Journal - FEMS microbiology letters (Netherlands )
Fungal type I polyketide (PK) compounds are highly valuable for medical treatment and extremely diverse in structure, partly because of the enzymatic activities of reducing domains in polyketide synthases (PKSs). We have cloned several PKS genes from the fungus Xylaria sp. BCC 1067, which produces two polyketides: depudecin (reduced PK) and 19,20-epoxycytochalasin Q (PK-nonribosomal peptide (NRP) hybrid). Two new degenerate primer sets, KA-series and XKS, were designed to amplify reducing PKS and PKS-NRP synthetase hybrid genes, respectively. Five putative PKS genes were amplified in Xylaria using KA-series primers and two more with the XKS primers. All seven are predicted to encode proteins homologous to highly reduced (HR)-type PKSs. Previously designed primers in LC-, KS-, and MT-series identified four additional PKS gene fragments. Selected PKS fragments were used as probes to identify PKS genes from the genomic library of this fungus. Full-length sequences for five PKS genes were obtained: pks12, pks3, pksKA1, pksMT, and pksX1. They are structurally diverse with 1-9 putative introns and products ranging from 2162 to 3654 amino acids in length. The finding of 11 distinct PKS genes solely by means of PCR cloning supports that PKS genes are highly diverse in fungi. It also indicates that our KA-series primers can serve as powerful tools to reveal the genetic potential of fungi in production of multiple types of HR PKs, which the conventional compound screening could underestimate.
|ISSN : ||0378-1097|
|Mesh Heading : ||Ascomycota DNA Primers DNA, Fungal Fungal Proteins Introns Molecular Sequence Data Open Reading Frames Phylogeny Polyketide Synthases Polymerase Chain Reaction Sequence Analysis, DNA Sequence Homology, Amino Acid enzymology chemistry genetics genetics|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||Genetic Variation Polymorphism, Genetic genetics genetics|