Distribution and evolution of the xylanase genes xynA and xynB and their homologues in strains of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.
Journal - Applied and environmental microbiology (UNITED STATES )
The ruminal bacterium Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens is being engineered by the introduction of heterologous xylanase genes in an attempt to improve the utilization of plant material in ruminants. However, relatively little is known about the diversity and distribution of the native xylanase genes in strains of B. fibrisolvens. In order to identify the most appropriate hosts for such modifications, the xylanase genotypes of 28 strains from the three 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) subgroups of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens have been investigated. Only 4 of the 20 strains from 16S rDNA group 2 contained homologues of the strain Bu49 xynA gene. However, these four xynA-containing strains, and two other group 2 strains, contained members of a second xylanase gene family clearly related to xynA (subfamily I). Homologues of xynB, a second previously described xylanase gene from B. fibrisolvens, were identified only in three of the seven group 1 strains and not in the group 2 and 3 strains. However, six of the group 1 strains contained one or more members of the two subfamilies of homologues of xynA. The distribution of genes and the nucleotide sequence relationships between the members of the two xynA subfamilies are consistent with the progenitor of all strains of B. fibrisolvens having contained a xynA subfamily I gene. Since many xylanolytic strains of B. fibrisolvens did not contain members of either of the xynA subfamilies or of the xynB family, at least one additional xylanase gene family remains to be identified in B. fibrisolvens.
|ISSN : ||0099-2240|
|Mesh Heading : ||Animals Bacillaceae Base Sequence DNA Primers DNA, Bacterial Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases Evolution, Molecular Genetic Variation Molecular Sequence Data Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique Rumen Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid Xylosidases beta-Glucosidase classification genetics genetics microbiology|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||Genes, Bacterial enzymology genetics genetics genetics|
Three Neocallimastix patriciarum esterases associated with the degradation of complex polysaccharides are members of a new family of hydrolases.
Journal - Microbiology (Reading, England) (ENGLAND )
Acetylesterase and cinnamoyl ester hydrolase activities were demonstrated in culture supernatant of the anaerobic ruminal fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum. A cDNA expression library from N. patriciarum was screened for esterases using beta-naphthyl acetate and a model cinnamoyl ester compound. cDNA clones representing four different esterase genes (bnaA-D) were isolated. None of the enzymes had cinnamoyl ester hydrolase activity, but two of the enzymes (BnaA and BnaC) had acetylxylan esterase activity, bnaA, bnaB and bnaC encode proteins with several distinct domains. Carboxy-terminal repeats in BnaA and BnaC are homologous to protein-docking domains in other enzymes from Neocallimastix species and another anaerobic fungus, a Piromyces sp. The catalytic domains of BnaB and BnaC are members of a recently described family of Ser/His active site hydrolases [Upton, C. & Buckley, J.T. (1995). Trends Biochem Sci 20, 178-179]. BnaB exhibits 40% amino acid identity to a domain of unknown function in the CelE cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum and BnaC exhibits 52% amino acid identity to a domain of unknown function in the XynB xylanase from Ruminococcus flavefaciens. BnaA, whilst exhibiting less than 10% overall amino acid identity to BnaB or BnaC, or to any other known protein, appears to be a member of the same family of hydrolases, having the three universally conserved amino acid sequence motifs. Several other previously described esterases are also shown to be members of this family, including a rhamnogalacturonan acetylesterase from Aspergillus aculeatus. However, none of the other previously described enzymes with acetylxylan esterase activity are members of this family of hydrolases.
|ISSN : ||1350-0872|
|Mesh Heading : ||Amino Acid Sequence Animals Binding Sites Biodegradation, Environmental DNA, Complementary Esterases Fungi Gene Library Hydrolases Molecular Sequence Data Naphthaleneacetic Acids Polysaccharides Rumen Sequence Alignment Sequence Analysis, DNA Sequence Homology, Amino Acid genetics genetics classification enzymology classification metabolism microbiology|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||Genes, Fungal genetics genetics genetics metabolism|