Michael E. DeBakey: reformer of cardiovascular surgery.
Journal - Journal of investigative surgery : the official journal of the Academy of Surgical Research (England )
In cardiac medicine, Dr. Michael Ellis DeBakey is the undisputed pioneer of this century, maybe even in history. The design of the ventricular assist device (VAD), the Dacron-created artificial blood vessel and his many other firsts revolutionized heart surgery (specifically aortic surgery) forever. In fact, his contributions were enormous and left and amazing legacy. DeBakey was known to have a temper and that he was a very difficult surgeon to work with. However, even his critics could not deny the impact he had on the world of medicine. In his early nineties, he still practiced surgery. DeBakey was a man that accomplished all he set out to do and died on early July 2008.
[Clinical trials without statistical significance. Importance of type II error.]
Journal - Cirugia y cirujanos (Mexico )
A randomized clinical trial is a prospective experiment to compare one or more interventions against a control group, in order to determine the effectiveness of the interventions. A clinical trial may compare the value of a drug vs. placebo. It may compare surgical with medical interventions. The principles apply to any situation in which the issue of who is exposed to which condition is under the control of the experimenter, and that the method of assignment is through randomization. A negative clinical trial is that in which no significant difference is found between the comparison groups. Results without statistical difference may be useful either to discard useless treatments or to demonstrate that one intervention is as effective as the one it was compared with. Eliminating useless treatments may be adequate. However, if this is the result of studies with methodological errors, new interventions that are actually useful may not be available for patients. In this review we present some of the possible methodological errors that may lead to false negative results in clinical trials.
Scientific basis of organ preservation.
Journal - Current opinion in organ transplantation (United States )
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the basic mechanisms involved during hypothermia and reperfusion, with special attention paid to efforts being made in refining solutions and the molecular characterization of cells during preservation. RECENT FINDINGS: Several graft-related molecules have been identified as correlating with early graft dysfunction and/or poor outcome in the immediate posttransplant period. Also, different inhibitors have been utilized to ameliorate the preservation-induced injury, alone or in combination with different preservation solutions. SUMMARY: Preservation-induced injury is a major contributing factor to early graft dysfunction in organ recipients. The success of organ transplantation is critically dependent on the quality of the donor organ. Donor-organ quality, in turn, is determined by a variety of factors, including donor age, donor management prior to organ procurement, the duration of hypothermic storage, and perfusion techniques utilized to protect organs from ischemia/reperfusion injury, which in turn cause a dramatic reprogramming of cell metabolism during organ transplantation. The expression of a number of inflammatory genes has been associated with early graft dysfunction and/or poor outcome in the immediate postoperative period. Some therapeutic manipulations have been demonstrated to be of significance in attaining near-normal organ function after transplantation.
|ISSN : ||1531-7013|
|Mesh Heading : ||Animals Humans Organ Preservation Organ Preservation Solutions Reperfusion Injury metabolism|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||Cold Temperature trends prevention & control|
William and Charles Mayo: their influence on American medicine.
Journal - Journal of investigative surgery : the official journal of the Academy of Surgical Research (United States )
In a little-known Midwest town named Rochester, Minnesota, a talented physician grew in fame and respect: Dr. William Worrall Mayo, who was influential in the evolution of medicine. He was a steadfast learner and raised two sons, William and Charles, to follow in his footsteps and further medical knowledge. They were leaders in surgery and in the creation of advanced and sophisticated medical facilities. Their talents, the issues surrounding medical practice, and unexpected opportunity all came into play for the Mayos. Two hospitals, St. Mary's Hospital and later the Methodist Hospital, witnessed and influenced the advancement of medicine through the Mayo Clinic heritage and dynasty in Minnesota and the rest of the world. In this article, we focus on the role of the Mayo brothers and their influence over the increasing acceptance of hospital care in America and abroad.
|ISSN : ||0894-1939|
|Mesh Heading : ||History, 19th Century History, 20th Century Hospitals Humans Minnesota Patient Care Physicians|