Therapeutic strategies for breast cancer based on histological type.
Journal - Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan) (Japan )
Breast cancer has various histological types that reflect not only morphological features but also biological characteristics. Therefore, it is not an exaggeration to say that breast cancers of different histological types are different diseases. It is generally accepted that the histological types of breast cancer are clinically significant because they serve as prognosticators and as the common language for improving the accuracy of clinical diagnosis. It is necessary to diagnose breast cancer at the level of not only histological findings by needle biopsy, but also the histologic type based on diagnostic imaging and cytological diagnosis. From the viewpoint of treatment, preoperative drug therapy is being performed more frequently to shrink tumors before breast-conserving therapy or to determine treatment sensitivity. The prognosis is favorable for patients who respond completely or patients in whom interstitial infiltration is completely eliminated histopathologically, and, as a result, it is important to assess therapeutic efficacy clinically and pathologically. Past experience has shed some light on differentiating cancers responsive to drug therapy from those unresponsive to drug therapy, as well as differentiating cancers in which therapeutic efficacy can be easily ascertained from those in which therapeutic efficacy cannot be easily ascertained. Preoperative drug therapy can be planned by making a histological diagnosis based on needle biopsy findings. Preoperative drug therapy is not indicated for noninvasive carcinoma and papillotubular carcinoma (invasive carcinoma with predominant intraductal components). While complete loss of interstitial infiltration can be expected with solid-tubular carcinoma, it cannot be expected with other histological types, such as invasive lobular carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, or metaplastic carcinoma (squamous-cell carcinoma and spindle-cell carcinoma). On therapeutic response assessment, the clinical and pathological findings generally match for solid-tubular carcinoma but not for scirrhous carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma. With mucinous carcinoma, mucus accumulation can remain, even though most cancer cells disappear; as a result, assessment based on tumor diameter changes is difficult. Histological diagnosis is also significant from the viewpoint of drug sensitivity, and it is important to maintain the accuracy of histological diagnosis.
Triple negative breast cancer: clinicopathological characteristics and treatment strategies.
Journal - Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined as a subtype that is negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. We introduce the theme of the special issue concerning clinicopathological characteristics and prospective treatment strategies of TNBC. This special issue consists of five conference papers that have been agreed on by the speakers and the commentator of the symposium of the 16th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society in September 2008 in Osaka.
Alternative use of multiple exons 1 of aromatase gene in cancerous and normal breast tissues from women over the age of 80 years
Journal - Breast Cancer Research : BCR
IntroductionPeripherally localized aromatase, which converts circulating androgens into estrogens, is important in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal breast carcinomas. We have previously shown that aromatase mRNA levels are higher in elderly breast carcinomas (EldCa) than breast carcinomas of the control group (ContCa) or normal breast tissues. Aromatase expression has been reported to be regulated through the alternative use of multiple exons 1 (exons 1a-1f and so on); however, the preferential usage of exons 1 in elderly breast tissue has never been systematically examined. In order to properly treat and protect against EldCa, the regulation mechanism of aromatase expression in elderly breast tissues should be elucidated. The aim of the present study is to elucidate whether there are any specific patterns in use of multiple exons 1 in elderly breast tissue.MethodsUsage of multiple exons 1 of the aromatase gene and mRNA levels of aromatase were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis in breast tissues of 38 elderly patients with breast cancer (age 80–99), and the results were compared with those in 35 patients of the control group (age 37–70). One-factor analysis of variance and the Scheffé test were used for the comparison of aromatase mRNA levels. Patterns of preferential utilization of multiple exons 1 of the aromatase gene were compared by ?2 test for independence or Fisher exact test for independence using a contingency table.ResultsExon 1d was utilized much more frequently in elderly tissue than in the control group irrespective of cancerous or normal tissue (EldCa, 36/38, 95% versus ContCa, 7/35, 20%, P < 0.0001; normal tissue of the elderly, EldNorm, 30/34, 88% versus normal tissue of controls, ContNorm, 2/29, 7%, P < 0.0001). Twenty EldCa (53%) and 12 EldNorm (35%) used both exons 1c and 1d; however, their dominance was reversed (EldCa, all 1d > 1c; EldNorm, all 1c > 1d).ConclusionsElderly breast tissues exhibited specific patterns in use of multiple exons 1, which at least partly explained the higher aromatase levels in EldCa. The mechanisms of how these specific patterns occur during aging and carcinogenesis should be further examined.
Skin invasion and prognosis in node negative breast cancer: a retrospective study
Journal - World Journal of Surgical Oncology
BackgroundThe impact of skin invasion in node negative breast cancer is uncertain.MethodsWe determined the prognosis in 97 node negative breast cancer patients (case group) who had tumors with skin invasion. Then we compared these patients with 4500 node negative invasive breast cancer patients treated surgically in the same period.ResultsPatients with skin invasion tended to be older, had more invasive lobular carcinoma and larger tumor size, and were less likely to have breast conserving surgery than those in the control group. The 5-year disease-free survival rate in the case group was 94.0%. There was no significant difference in the 10-year disease-specific overall survival rates in terms of skin invasion in node negative patients (90.7% in the case group, 92.9% in the control group; p = 0.2032).ConclusionResults suggest that skin invasion has no impact on survival in node negative invasive breast cancer patients. The adjuvant regimens which the individual institute applies for node negative breast cancer should be used regardless of skin invasion.