Canonical parameterization of excess motor degrees of freedom with self-organizing maps.
Journal - IEEE transactions on neural networks / a publication of the IEEE Neural Networks Council (United States )
The problem of sensorimotor control is underdetermined due to excess (or "redundant") degrees of freedom when there are more joint variables than the minimum needed for positioning an end-effector. A method is presented for solving the nonlinear inverse kinematics problem for a redundant manipulator by learning a natural parameterization of the inverse solution manifolds with self-organizing maps. The parameterization approximates the topological structure of the joint space, which is that of a fiber bundle. The fibers represent the "self-motion manifolds" along which the manipulator can change configuration while keeping the end-effector at a fixed location. The method is demonstrated for the case of the redundant planar manipulator. Data samples along the self-motion manifolds are selected from a large set of measured input-output data. This is done by taking points in the joint space corresponding to end-effector locations near "query points", which define small neighborhoods in the end-effector work space. Self-organizing maps are used to construct an approximate parameterization of each manifold which is consistent for all of the query points. The resulting parameterization is used to augment the overall kinematics map so that it is locally invertible. Joint-angle and end-effector position data, along with the learned parameterizations, are used to train neural networks to approximate direct inverse functions.