Structured intraoperative assessment of pancreatic gland characteristics in predicting complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy.
Journal - The British journal of surgery
BACKGROUND: The morbidity rate after pancreaticoduodenectomy remains high (20-50 per cent) and postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is a major underlying factor. POPF has been reported to be associated with pancreatic consistency (PC) and pancreatic duct diameter (PDD). The aim was to quantify the risk of pancreaticojejunostomy-associated morbidity (PJAM) by means of a structured intraoperative assessment of both characteristics. METHODS: This single-centre prospective observational study included pancreaticoduodenectomies performed between 2008 and 2010 with a standardized duct-to-mucosa end-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy. PC and PDD were assessed during surgery and classified into four grades each (from very hard to very soft, and from larger than 4 mm to smaller than 2 mm, respectively). PJAM was defined as POPF (grade B or C in International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula classification) or symptomatic peripancreatic collection of either abscess or fluid. PJAM of at least Clavien grade IIIb was considered severe. RESULTS: PJAM and POPF were observed in 24 (21·8 per cent) and 17 (15·5 per cent) of 110 patients respectively. Softer PC and smaller PDD were risk factors for POPF (both P < 0·001), symptomatic peripancreatic collections (P = 0·071 and P = 0·015) and PJAM (both P < 0·001). Combining consistency and duct characteristics in a composite classification the PJAM risk was stratified as 'high' (both risk factors, PJAM incidence 51 per cent), 'intermediate' (softer PC or smaller PDD, PJAM 26 per cent) or 'low' (no risk factors, PJAM 2 per cent). Severe PJAM was observed only in patients with smaller PDD. CONCLUSION: A high-risk pancreatic gland had a 25-fold higher risk of PJAM after pancreaticoduoden- ectomy than a low-risk gland. This simple classification can contribute to more individualized patient management and allow stratification of study cohorts with homogeneous POPF risk. Copyright © 2012 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Copyright © 2012 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Early intraperitoneal metabolic changes and protease activation as indicators of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy.
Journal - The British journal of surgery
BACKGROUND: Ischaemia and local protease activation close to the pancreaticojejunal anastomosis (PJA) are potential mechanisms of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) formation. To provide information on the pathophysiology of POPF, intraperitoneal microdialysis was used to monitor metabolic changes and protease activation close to the PJA after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). METHODS: In patients who underwent PD, intraperitoneal metabolites (glycerol, lactate, pyruvate and glucose) were measured by microdialysis, and lactate and glucose in blood were monitored, every 4 h for 5 days, starting at 12.00 hours on the day after surgery. Trypsinogen activation peptide (TAP) was measured in microdialysates as a marker of protease activation. RESULTS: Intraperitoneal glycerol levels and the ratio of lactate to pyruvate were higher after PD and glucose levels were lower in seven patients who later developed symptomatic POPF than in eight patients with other surgical complications (OSC) and 33 with no surgical complications (NSC) (all P < 0·050). TAP was detected at a concentration greater than 0·1 µg/l in six of seven patients with POPF, two of eight with OSC and two of 33 with NSC. Intraperitoneal lactate concentrations were higher than systemic levels in all patients on days 1 to 5 after surgery (P < 0·001). In patients with POPF, high intraperitoneal lactate concentrations were observed without systemic hyperlactataemia. CONCLUSION: Early in the postoperative phase, patients who later developed clinically significant POPF had higher intraperitoneal glycerol concentrations and lactate/pyruvate ratios, and lower glucose concentrations in combination with a TAP level exceeding 0·1 µg/l close to the PJA, than patients who did not develop POPF. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.