Correlation of leptin and sex hormones with endocrine changes in healthy Saudi women of different body weights.
Journal - Annals of Saudi medicine (Saudi Arabia )
BACKGROUND: A relationship between estrogen and leptin has been described during the follicular phase of both spontaneous menstrual cycles and cycles stimulated with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which suggest that leptin has either a direct effect on or is regulated by gonadal steroids in the human ovary. To examine the changes in plasma leptin levels during the menstrual cycle, we studied the association between plasma leptin and reproductive hormones in young, healthy Saudi women. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Sixty-five young women between 19 to 39 years of age, with a normal menstrual cycle, were grouped into 33 overweight and obese females of BMI >25 kg/m2, and 32 lean females of BMI <25 kg/m2. Anthropometrics measurements were made at the time of the collection. Samples were analyzed for leptin, progesterone, estradiol (E2), FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH), cortisol, and testosterone concentrations. RESULTS: Overweight and obese women, compared with lean, tended to have a significantly higher plasma leptin levels (11.38 +/- 4.06 vs. 6.22 +/- 2.87 ng/mL; P=0.05). In overweight and obese subjects, circulating leptin concentrations showed a directcorrelation with BMI (r=0.53; P=0.002), hip circumference (r=0.32; P=0.005), waist-hip ratio (r=0.37; P=0.042), weight (r=0.41; P=0.021), and E2 on day 3 (r=0.35; P=0.048). In all correlation analyses, leptin levels did not correlate with cortisol or testosterone. In lean subjects, a bivariate correlation analysis showed that plasma leptin concentrations were directly correlated to hip circumference (r=0.43; P=0.012). Moreover, a direct correlation was found with progesterone on day 10 (r=0.43; P=0.014) and E2 on day 24 (r=0.47; P=0.007). CONCLUSION: There is a link between plasma leptin and progesterone concentrations during the menstrual cycle, and the variation in circulating estradiol concentrations may have an influence on circulating leptin in female subjects.
|ISSN : ||0256-4947|
|Mesh Heading : ||Adult Body Mass Index Endocrine Glands Estradiol Female Follicle Stimulating Hormone Humans Hydrocortisone Leptin Luteinizing Hormone Menstrual Cycle Obesity Progesterone Saudi Arabia Testosterone secretion blood blood blood blood metabolism blood physiology blood epidemiology blood epidemiology blood|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||Body Weight diagnosis|
Serum resistin, adiposity and insulin resistance in Saudi women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Journal - Annals of Saudi medicine (Saudi Arabia )
BACKGROUND: The role of adipocyte hormones in modulating insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance are of increasing interest and importance in studies of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently a unique signaling molecule, resistin, has been proposed as playing a role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related insulin resistance, but its relevance to human diabetes remains uncertain. Therefore, we assessed the relationship between serum resistin concentrations and insulin resistance in lean, overweight and obese (OW/OB) non-diabetic and diabetic Saudi women. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We measured fasting serum resistin levels in 44 diabetic women with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 31.82 +/- 4.35 kg/m2, 21 OW/OB non-diabetic women with a mean BMI 30.71 +/- 3.42 kg/m2 and in 24 lean women with a mean BMI of 23.33 +/- 1.24 kg/m2. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance formula derived from fasting insulin and glucose levels. RESULTS: The concentrations of fasting serum resistin showed significant differences among the three groups (P<0.001). Mean serum resistin concentrations increased from lean (11.59 +/- 2.08) to OW/OB non-diabetic (16.29 +/- 2.29) to diabetic (19.42 +/- 3.60 ng/mL) women. Significantly higher levels of glucose (P<0.001) and values for the homeostasis model assessment ratio (HOMA-R) (P<0.01) occurred in the diabetic compared to the lean and OW/OB non-diabetic subjects. Furthermore, resistin correlated significantly and positively with hip circumferences (r=0.39, P=0.039), weight (r=0.51, P=0.005), insulin (r=0.40, P=0.033), HOMA-R (r=0.49, P=0.007) and glucose (r=0.39, P=0.038) in diabetic women. In OW/OB non-diabetic subjects, resistin correlated with insulin (r=0.59, P=0.015) and HOMA-R (r=0.616, P=0.011). No correlation was observed with glucose, height, hip, waist, weight, and waist-hip ratio (WHR) in the lean and OW/OB non-diabetic groups. CONCLUSION: Resistin concentrations are elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes and are associated with obesity and insulin resistance. These data indicate that resistin might be involved in the development of diabetes in humans.
|ISSN : ||0256-4947|
|Mesh Heading : ||Adiposity Aged Biological Markers Blood Glucose Body Mass Index Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 Female Humans Insulin Resistance Middle Aged Obesity Resistin Saudi Arabia blood metabolism blood physiopathology epidemiology|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||physiology blood physiopathology physiology blood|
Relationship of leptin concentration to gender, body mass index and age in Saudi adults.
Journal - Saudi medical journal (Saudi Arabia )
OBJECTIVE: Leptin concentrations are highly correlated with body fat storage and exhibit sexual dimorphism, with women having higher concentrations at every level of relative or absolute adiposity. To test whether or not this relation is consistent across the Saudi population. This study aims to investigate the effect of gender, obesity related parameters, and age on leptin levels from representative samples of Saudi women and men. METHODS: This study was carried out at King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the year 2003. Fasting leptin concentrations were determined after an overnight fast in 122 healthy subjects (57 women, 65 men; age 20-75 years; body mass index [BMI] 16-56 kg/m2). The subjects were separated into female and male groups. To clarify the age and BMI-related changes in leptin levels, each gender was divided into 3 BMI groups (lean 15-24, overweight 25-30 and obese >30 kg/m2), and 3 age groups (younger 20-34, middle-aged 35-49 and older 50-75 years); and they were treated separately. Anthropometrics measurements (weight, height, waist, and hip circumferences), blood pressure, and fasting glucose levels were taken at the time of the collection. RESULTS: In the whole group, leptin levels were between 0.16-21.72 ng/ml, and females had higher leptin concentration (6.04 +/- 4.71 ng/ml versus 1.72 +/- 0.95 ng/ml, p<0.0001) than males. Gender differences remained clear when leptin concentrations were divided by BMI or age. In comparing the pattern of changes between the 2 genders, leptin levels were low in lean individuals and rose with increased BMI in both genders. Age-related change in leptin levels showed a tendency toward a non-significant reduction in older women and a significant (p=0.05) rise in older men. Correlation analysis between leptin and BMI were highly significant in female (r=0.64; p=0.0001) and male (r=0.49; p=0.0001) groups independent of age and sex. The findings were further explored using stepwise multiple linear regression analysis with leptin concentrations as the dependent variable and age, BMI, waist hip ratio (WHR), waist, and hip measurements as independent variables. The analysis demonstrated that the determinants of leptin concentrations were BMI and age (r=0.69; p=0.015) in women and BMI, age and WHR (r=0.61; p=0.01) in men. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that there are gender-specific and age-dependent gender-specific differences in leptin concentrations in healthy Saudi individuals. However, this study indicates that there may be unknown variables that may also influence leptin levels in Saudi women and men.
|ISSN : ||0379-5284|
|Mesh Heading : ||Adult Age Factors Aged Body Composition Cohort Studies Female Humans Incidence Leptin Male Middle Aged Obesity Probability Reference Values Saudi Arabia Sensitivity and Specificity Sex Factors blood epidemiology|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||Body Mass Index metabolism diagnosis|