Microparticles and pregnancy complications.
Journal - Thrombosis research
Microparticles (MPs) are shed from cell membranes of a variety of cells, promote thrombus formation, mediate pro-inflammatory effects and may cause endothelial dysfunction. Normal pregnancy is characterized by increased levels of MPs compared to non-pregnant healthy women but the prevalence, cell origin and the role of MPs in pregnancy-related complications remain controversial. Normal pregnancy is an acquired hyper-coagulable state due to an increase in procoagulants and decrease in natural anticoagulants. Pregnancy-related complications such as preeclampsia, intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) and fetal loss are associated with placental dysfunction and may cause significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. This article highlights the role of microparticles in maternal placental crosstalk and the interplay between microparticles, thrombosis and pregnancy complications.Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Microparticles and placental hemostasis.
Journal - Thrombosis research (United States )
|ISSN : ||0049-3848|
|Mesh Heading : ||Biological Markers Female Hemostasis Humans Placental Circulation Pregnancy blood|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||physiology physiology blood|
Monocyte-derived microparticles and exosomes induce procoagulant and apoptotic effects on endothelial cells.
Journal - Thrombosis and haemostasis (Germany )
Microvesicles (MVs) which include microparticles (MPs) and exosomes are found in blood circulation in normal physiologic conditions and are increased in a variety of diseases. This study evaluated the effects of MVs on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) by morphologic changes, apoptosis, and thrombogenicty, in vitro. Stimulation of monocyte cell line (THP-1) by starvation or by endotoxin and calcium ionophore A23187 resulted in the release of MVs which express exosome marker Tsg 101, negative phospholipids in their leaflets, monocyte markers (CD18, CD14) and active tissue factor (TF). MVs were found to disrupt EC integrity and rapidly induce membrane blebbing. Brief exposure (2-4 hours) to MVs resulted in EC membrane phospholipids "flip-flop" while longer stimulation (20 hours) led to two contradicting outcomes - tube formation as well as apoptosis, as assessed by nuclear fragmentation. Additionally, MVs exposure resulted in increased cell surface thrombogenicity and perturbation of the endothelial haemostatic balance, which were enhanced during longer exposure time. Activity, antigen level and mRNA expression of the coagulation initiator TF were elevated due to (i) adherence of MVs derived TF to the EC membrane, and (ii) an increase in endothelial TF expression. Furthermore, levels of the anticoagulant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and thrombomodulin (TM) were decreased. These findings demonstrate that monocyte MVs increase endothelial thrombogenicity and apoptosis. In addition, they induce tube formation which may indicate their angiogenic effect. These findings may clarify, in part, the role of MVs in EC dysfunction associated with inflammatory diseases and hypercoagulable states.
|ISSN : ||0340-6245|
|Mesh Heading : ||Cell Differentiation Cell Shape Cell-Derived Microparticles Cells, Cultured Endothelial Cells Exosomes Humans Lipoproteins Monocytes Neovascularization, Physiologic RNA, Messenger Thrombomodulin Thromboplastin Time Factors genetics pathology metabolism metabolism metabolism genetics metabolism|
|Mesh Heading Relevant : ||Apoptosis Blood Coagulation metabolism metabolism metabolism metabolism|
Nitric oxide and superoxide dismutase modulate endothelial progenitor cell function in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Journal - Cardiovascular Diabetology
BackgroundThe function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which are key cells in vascular repair, is impaired in diabetes mellitus. Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species can regulate EPC functions. EPCs tolerate oxidative stress by upregulating superoxide dismutase (SOD), the enzyme that neutralizes superoxide anion (O2-). Therefore, we investigated the roles of NO and SOD in glucose-stressed EPCs.MethodsThe functions of circulating EPCs from patients with type 2 diabetes were compared to those from healthy individuals. Healthy EPCs were glucose-stressed, and then treated with insulin and/or SOD. We assessed O2- generation, NO production, SOD activity, and their ability to form colonies.ResultsEPCs from diabetic patients generated more O2-, had higher NAD(P)H oxidase and SOD activity, but lower NO bioavailability, and expressed higher mRNA and protein levels of p22-phox, and manganese SOD and copper/zinc SOD than those from the healthy individuals. Plasma glucose and HbA1c levels in the diabetic patients were correlated negatively with the NO production from their EPCs. SOD treatment of glucose-stressed EPCs attenuated O2- generation, restored NO production, and partially restored their ability to form colonies. Insulin treatment of glucose-stressed EPCs increased NO production, but did not change O2- generation and their ability to form colonies. However, their ability to produce NO and to form colonies was fully restored after combined SOD and insulin treatment.ConclusionOur data provide evidence that SOD may play an essential role in EPCs, and emphasize the important role of antioxidant therapy in type 2 diabetic patients.